Water as FUEL



# – 1975, Frederic WENTWORTH, USP 3,862,819 http://www.freepatentsonline.com/3862819.pdf

and in 1990, USP 4,952,340, http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4952340.pdf

# – Water Car – Kramer Version – Bubblers, By Thomas C. Kramer – August 2003

The starting point of making your car run on water is a ‘Bubbler’.

A bubbler is a simple device that just bubbles air through water to create water vapor that is fed into your engine.This can be done by either blowing air through water or sucking the air through water.Sucking works better because this creates a low pressure over the surface of the water making it easier for the water to vaporize.

Low-pressure sucked air can be done using a small pump or much easier by taking a vacuum feed off your engine’s intake manifold.The intake manifold is the easiest, but pumped systems are used where water vapor and fuel gases are blown into the carburetor like in a supercharger system.Both systems will be discussed below with different types of electrolysis units.

The purpose of a bubbler is to add water vapor to your fuel mix.That is, to make your car a ‘steam engine’.This causes your fuel to burn slower and cooler, and the water vapor, when heated in the combustion process, expands thus giving you more power with less fuel.A bubbler system on any car should thus give you 10%-15% better gas mileage and a cleaner engine.

Hydrogen and oxygen gas tends to burn too fast and too hot, thus running a water car you may have to add a water vapor ‘bubbler’ to your system to add additional water vapor to your fuel intake.This will cool the process and retard or slow down the oxygen-hydrogen burn.

Some bubbler designs heat or even boil the water, using placement over the exhaust manifold or by running your air intake into the bubbler from the exhaust pipe!Remember that exhaust gases are only water vapor in a water car.And you will get a positive pressure push too.You can evencoil tubing around your exhaust pipe.

A bubbler can also be attached to your gas feed line, bubbling the gas (hydrogen/oxygen/LNG/propane) through a water bath.This is a good idea as a backfire arrestor and even a small cup size unit like those found on air compressors could do the trick.

You can even do this with a gasoline feed provided you vaporize the gas first.This can be done by first running your gas through a vaporizer.A vaporizer is just a radiator-type coil where your gas is looped back and forth through some tubing a number of times, like the radiator at the back of your refrigerator.This vaporizes the fluid gas before it reaches the carburetor.You can make one out of copper or s. steel tubing by coiling or looping the tubing and placing this after your fuel pump.The gas vapor can then be run through a bubbler to cool the gas and add water vapor before running this into your LNG adapter in front of your carburetor.

Large bubblers made specifically for generating quantities of water vapor are made from cheap water filters.These are run in reverse with the water IN being the vapor OUT and the water out becoming the air IN.The air IN will require a pipe and an air stone to the bottom of the bubbler and usually a control valve to control the amount of air being sucked through the unit.Several bubblers can also be linked together to provide more water vapor.

You will require a water-IN hole to be made in the old water filter so that you can top it up with water occasionally. Water can be sucked in through your air-IN hole but that can bugger up your air stones, so it might be wiser just to drill a hole in the side of the filter or filter cap and insert a tank adapter with a screw plug or rubber stopper in the end.Tank adapters are just small diameter pipes that are threaded all the way and have 2 nuts and rubber washers that seal the connection through the wall of the filter.If you only want a small hole use a short piece of the metal tubing used in lamps.If you come in from the side, use an elbow before your cap so that it will be easier to fill.For hand filling, use a squeeze bottle like the ones used for topping up battery water, but don’t waste your money on distilled battery water, as ordinary tap water will do just fine in a bubbler.

Fancy bubblers may have water level sensors that activate solenoid valves that are connected to your main water tank feed line, branching off after the pump and filter.Who wants the extra cost?

The main idea of a bubbler is to create ‘bubbles’ of water vapor.The low-pressure vacuum from your intake manifold will cause water to vaporize quicker, but this requires more water surface area in contact with air, thus the more bubbles the better.Aquarium air stones generally work fine but these may cause too much resistance and can clog up with dusty or dirty air intake (Use a sponge filter).

You can also use several other techniques for bubble making such as, just drilling small holes in the end of your intake tube, using a number of spacer plates with holes in them up the length of your intake tube, placing stainless steel scouring pads (loosened up a bit) inside your bubbler, and so on.The idea is to reduce airflow resistance but create bubbles of the smallest size possible.It is thus easier to make big bubbles and then break them up a bit, than to try to squeeze out tiny bubbles.

The bubbler may need a control valve for better control.The vacuum on your intake manifold is enough to suck your water tank dry in a few minutes if you are not careful.

You may also want to insert some plastic filter material at the top of the bubblers to prevent sloshing around when you drive and sucking water directly into the engine.This can be a loose sponge or the plastic filter-mat material used in aquariums.

Since internal combustion engines work fundamentally on temperature variations, with the bigger variation the better, you might consider cooling the water vapor before entering the engine.This is done again with a radiator, looping tubing or tubing with fins on it (used in floor heating) before the engine intake.

Finally, if your engine is still running hot, even on lean fuel and with a bubbler, you might consider a bigger radiator or an additional radiator fan.This all depends on the climate that you live in.

# – Fog Injection by Kevin Satterfiled, for fuel saving, http://oupower.com/index.php?dir=_Other_Peoples_Projects/kevinsatterfield/Fog Injection

This is an attemtp…. A 1400 psi electric preasure washer pump and motor from walmart for 84 $The plan here is to put a 12v 1/2 HPmotor in replace of the 120 ac motor.I like to use wat I have lay’n around most of the time and I do have a 40lb thrust trolling motor Ive salvaged.Next step is to find a gear puller.Auto Zone wasnt able to supply one small enough next stop Napa and or Carquest.

UREAKA….LOLIts put’n out more than my nozzle is rated for(1000psi) but this was only a first test to see how it does on 24 volts at full charge.And as you can see the trolling motor is do’n its job.12 volts just wouldnt put out ANYTHING with this motor…there may be a better motor to use but till i can find it this one ‘s gonna have to do .

here was a test to see how much wet fog wuld get past the trip to the throttle body and as you can see,not much…lol.The major wetness is come’n from a hose leah and spray’n everywhere but here’s a decent start on this project and its been a fun one..thanks Bob!!!Looking forward to complete’n this one.

12volts are gonna be just fine with a 12/24 volts trolling boat motor.900psi on 12v with that motor is use’n 8 amps.After testing the fog thru the air filter house’n and into the throttle body,I must say this a really cool project.Herman mention run’n fog for a couple years in his 302 before adding his hydrogen generator.Gotta build a custom air box with this on my truck so im off to the shed….stay tuned……

# – RSR Turbo Water Injection. http://www.rbracing-rsr.com/waterinjection.html

The blue rail of this BMW K1200RS/GT/LT Turbo Plenum is our port water injection system with four 40cc/min nozzles. Water Injection is the best way to make power when you are dealing with forced induction systems. In this case we are running a turbo on a 11.5:1 high compression bike and doubling the horsepower with relability. There is really nothing new about this…We’ve been doing it for over 20 years but people were doing it way, way, before we ever came on the scene.

Sir Harry Ricardo and the High Speed Aero Engine. Incredibly complex, turbo-supercharged, radial and V-12 engines that had to take off with a full bomb load in conditions that were never ideal. You might think you put the pedal to the metal but for the WWII fighter and bomber crews death was always part of equation…It wasn’t a game and if you couldn’t squeeze out the last bit of horsepower you were dead. It was in this environment that water alcohol injection technology was refined. Wright Cyclone engine pictured above.

The pioneering research was done by people like Sir Harry Ricardo, the researchers at NACA in Langley Field and all the aero engine designers of the period entering the Second World War.

For an interesting read you can download a PDF from NACA http://www.rbracing-rsr.com/downloads/naca_H2O.pdf dated 15 August 1942. It still applies today. A second NACA PDF http://www.rbracing-rsr.com/downloads/NACA_H2O_2.pdf also validates the use of water injection.

If you want your high output turbo or supercharged motor to avoid engine destroying pre-ignition and detonation you are going to have to employ water injection and the way it has to be done was set in stone a long, long, time ago. Pictured above is a schematic of a WWII aero engine water/methanol regulator…designed over 60 years ago!

Monster Marine Diesels

Engines bigger than your house and they use water injection to reduce emissions! Diesel engines obviously can derive some benefit from cooling the combustion process. This is really big industrial stuff so don’t think about adapting anything. The comany is Wartsila http://www.wartsila.com/ .

… Sir Harry Ricardo proved once and for all that you can richen things up to a point but, beyond this, detonation is going to rear it’s head no matter how much fuel you throw at it and, in fact, the extra fuel may increase the tendency to detonate! Going rich beyond the well-defined 12.5:1 boost maximum power air fuel ratio is going to cost you power.

Studies in the early part of the Second World War proved conclusively that as you add water you can lean out your overly rich mixtures as you raise your boost pressures. As Sir Harry Ricardo stated…”By the introduction of water…the fuel/air ratio could be reduced once again; in fact, with water injection, no appreciable advantage was found from the use of an over-rich fuel/air mixture”.

I Don’t Want To Learn…Just Give Me The Answers!

1. Maximum Torque occurs at a 13.2:1 Air Fuel Ratio.
2. Transitional Fueling and Maximum Boost Air Fuel Ratios are about 12.5:1.
3. Water Injection is most efficient with a 50/50 water alcohol mixture.
4. Methanol, as an additive, is not a practical choice as it is prone to pre-ignition, is not safe to handle and is not readily available.
5. Denatured (ethanol) alcohol, typically 95%, is cheap and is available in paint, hardware, and Home Depot type stores in gallon containers for about $10.00. Isopropyl alcohol can be used but it is often 30% or more water by content.
6. Water Injection allows ignition timing to be more aggressive or closer to stock. In other words boost does not automatically mean retard your timing.
7. Excessive amounts of ignition retard will cause a loss of power and overheating.
8. Water to Fuel ratios should be based on weight and not volume.
9 . Water weighs 8.33 lb per gallon.
10. Alcohol weighs 6.63 lb per gallon.
11. Air weighs .080645 lb per cubic foot. It takes about 150 cubic feet of air per 100 horsepower. It takes about 12 lb of air per 100 horsepower.
12. Water or Water / Alcohol to Fuel Ratios are between 12.5% to 25%. This means Air to Fluid Ratios are between 11.1:1 and 10.0:1 with water injection.
13. Maximum water delivery should be in higher load low to mid rpm ranges tapering somewhat at peak rpms where load is less.
14. Atomization of the water mixture is directly related to it effectiveness. Finer droplets cool the inlet charge better and with less mass they navigate the inlet plenum easier for more equal water distribution.
15. Don’t flow water through an intercooler.
16. Atomized water, just like fuel , does not like to make turns thus making accurate distribution something to think about. This is why port fuel injection is the norm. Water is a fluid just like your fuel. Multiple nozzes, equally spaced in the plenum, although it complicates things, is a superior design.
17. The introduction of water will allow higher boost pressures to be run without detonation. Higher pressures will increase torque. It’s always about torque.
18. Racing high octane gasoline should be used for all forms of competition and for higher than normal boost levels. Water injection as well as charge cooling should be used with racing gas. 91/92 Octane pump gas simply will not cut it.
19. Fuel Injectors operate in the 1 Millisecond range and are not capable of long term usage for H20 as they will corrode or rust shut in a very short period of time. Unless a solenoid can open as fast as a fuel injector it should not be used to “pulse” water injection events.
20. Varying voltage to water injection pumps or using similar schemes is a recipe for disaster. You have to eliminate the variables, not increase them.
21. Fuel Injection pumps cannot be used for water injection. Water is conductive. Gasoline is not. Water will corrode an efi pump shut in a very short period of time.
22. Water injection has a cooling effect on the engine head, valves, and cylinder. Exhaust temperatures (EGT) are largely unaffected at recommended water / fuel ratios.
23. The cooling of potential hot spots in the combustion chamber defeats pre-ignition, the most destructive form of uncontrolled or unplanned combustion.
24. Higher static compression ratios will require a higher percentage of water or water / alcohol.
25. No, water does not burn. We are not combusting the hydrogen in the H2O.
26. At around 13.2:1 or fuel air ratios of .75, EGT’s will peak.
27. Ferrari suspended water in their fuel during their 1980’s Formula1 period. We don’t recommend that you try this…although Acetone will mix with water.

Ferrari, engine with water injection:

Harley-Davidson, Suzuki, BMW, Hondas, Kawasakis, Triumphs etc….all our race bikes have run water injection since the early 1980’s. The thermal loads, even with intercooling and racing gasoline are too high and without water injection you simply can’t run mile after mile on the long course at Bonneville without some additional form of charge cooling. Running 22 psi of boost between the two mile and four mile markers day after day and no engine failures.

Pictured above is our part number 06-1020 Billet Water Injection Regulator which is designed to regulate water or water/alcohol mixtures without any corrosion problems. Referenced to manifold pressure, it is available with both 8mm banjo as well as AN fittings. Banjo fittings allow 360 degree positioning of inlet and bypass lines. Regulator pressure is screwdriver adjustable.

Atomizing Nozzles

All nozzles are individually filtered so there is no need for an additional filter in the system. If you employ a common rail with multiple nozzles, or individual nozzles in your system, the fact that each nozzle is filtered will prevent the inadvertant clogging of one nozzle as opposed to having one filter in the system and no filters on the nozzles themselves.

RB Racing offers the following atomizing nozzles rated in ccs per minute at 40psi: 40cc, 80cc, 120cc, 160cc, 200cc, 400cc, 600cc.

Whichever nozzle and pump combination you choose you should bench test the system before you install it in you vehicle. Running multiple nozzles can affect, or lessen, the flow and how you design your system with all the routing of lines and fittings will affect things. Whenever we engineer a new water injection for one of our turbo kits we bench test the the delivery using either digital flowmeters or simple burettes (100ml up to 2000ml). Water is not hazardous so all you need is a 12VDc power source and something to measure the flow. If you don’t measure it you will never know. Since we reference water pressure to manifold pressure the results are valid at a tested pressure. Using our Water Injection Calculator you can make adjustments in the water pressure regulator to bring things in line.

For you creative types you can use our nozzles both up and downstream as well as squirting water on your intercooler. It can get as complicated as you wish. Remember it’s all a heat equation. Heat equals power…but too much heat equals destruction.

RSR Water Injection Pumps

BMW K1200RS Reservoir with Model 38 pump

RSR Water Injection Pumps

By keying the water pressure to manifold pressure you effectively build a curve of water delivery that delivers proportionally more water in higher load situations and tapers this off somewhat at peak power and rpm where less water is needed.

Titanium seats are corrosion resistant. Anodization and double diaphragm nitrile components are alcohol compatible. Various inlet / outlet combinations i.e. AN/O-Ring/Banjo etc are available.

… A 12VDc bubble-tight, normally closed, solenoid can be placed between the water pump and the water injection nozzle(s). Multiple solenoids are used in a staged system, or in cases where the nozzles are placed downstream of the throttle blade where high vacuum is present. This insures there is no possibility of water flowing to the nozzles unless boost is present. The solenoid is normally closed and activates under the user defined onset of water injection triggered by a pressure activated switch. Single or multiple solenoids can be employed for staged systems, each with a different pressure trip point controlled by a pressure activated switch. 1/8 NPT standard. 1/4″ NPT optional.

Pressure Activated Switches : User adjustable to trigger specific water injection events. There is usually just one of these used, but multiples can be used for staged injection and for other uses such as spray on the intercooler’s exterior. These are usually referenced to plenum or boost pressure and not below the throttle where both vacuum and boost is present. Adjustable from .5 to 150 psi. 1/8 NPT.

– RSR Water Injection Calculator

You have to match your water delivery to your expected horsepower needs. If you are going to run staged nozzles with multiple solenoids then you can use the calculator to total these versus your peak boost horsepower. You can also enter a lower horsepower figure where your primaries are activated and by zeroing out the secondary nozzle entries you will be able to see your Coolant to Fuel and Air to Liquid Mass Ratios from the primary nozzles only.

– Horsepower– Peak boost horsepower
– Primary Nozzles– Rated in ccs per minute
– Number of Primary Nozzles
– Secondary Nozzles– Rated in ccs per minute
– Number of Secondary Nozzles
– Water Regulator Pressure– Initially set at 40 psi, which is what RSR Nozzles are rated at as stated in ccs per minute
– Percent Water– 0 to 100; Typically 50
– Percent Alcohol– 0 to 100; Typically 50

## TECTANE octane alternative; H2O Injector for Gasoline Conventional Engines, http://www.tectane.com/index.php

# Technologies: AQUAHOL

AQUAHOL is an automotive fuel process in which precisely-measured amounts of H2O are injected into an alcohol-powered combustion engine. AQUAGAS is a very similar fuel process, but refers to an engine running on gasoline or gasohol. Both AQUAHOL and AQUAGAS fuel processes are made possible by the exact same device, the low-cost high-efficiency TECTANE H2O Injector (which can be added to most cars and trucks as an after-market installation by a certified mechanic, or installed OEM prior to the sale of new cars).

Clean vs. Polluting Fuels: The United Nations Environmental Fact Sheet #25 states that the burning of fossil fuels is the highest contributor of CO2 emissions. Ethanol fuels contain 35% oxygen and are much cleaner burning than gasoline fuels. Furthermore, ethanol is a renewable resource.

Licensed chemist Domenico Chiovitti at OTI Petroleum Labs demonstrating the comparison of emissions from
burning 1. gasoline; 2. alcohol; 3. alcohol and water mixed together.

H2O Injector

The revolutionary H2O Injector is an inexpensive add-on device (for cars with combustion engines) which reduces emissions and increases mileage, and can even allow regular cars to run on 75-octane gasoline or ethanol fuels. The H2O Injector can be installed on many conventional engines, and uses a special TECTANE formula to protect alcohol-sensitive engine components. The complete system costs $500 USD fully installed (averaging 2-3 hours to install on most cars).

AQUAHOL is the separate injection of 80% ethanol and 20% water (H2O). Since water contains 89% oxygen (by molecular weight) and ethanol contains 35% oxygen, complete effective combustion occurs. AQUAHOL is classified by the U.S. Department of Agriculture as being 800% more efficient than gasohol, which is a blend of 90% gasoline and 10% ethanol (currently mandated by U.S. law and also adopted worldwide).

The added oxygen provides for better combustion, and therefore fewer emissions (such as carbon monoxide and NOx). It also continuously “steam-cleans” the engine, increasing its lifespan.

Tests conducted by the S.A.E., the E.P.A. (California), the Hollywood (Florida) Police Department, Pepsi-Cola, Marriott Hotels, CarQuest and others have all reported savings on mileage ranging from:

# E.P.A. – 25% # S.A.E. – 40% # Marriott – 40% # Police – 40%

The following links to test papers and testimonials are provided as certification of the chemical, mechanical and operational viability of TECTANE’s H2O Injection system…. see original page

==> Why AQUA? Chemistry 101: water (H2O) is composed of 2 parts hydrogen (a powerful fuel), and 1 part oxygen (which is required for burning any fuel). Water molecules can be split into these separate gaseous elements by using electricity (which is cost-prohibitive), or through the combination of very high pressure + temperature.

In fact, the temperature and pressure required to split water into its two elements already exists inside the combustion chamber of every car when you step on the gas. This is an amazing, often overlooked fact. So — what if you could introduce a small amount of water into the combustion chamber of your car’s engine every time you stepped on the gas pedal? This is precisely what the TECTANE H2O Injector does! The water is instantly vaporized into steam, and then further split into hydrogen and oxygen. This extra oxygen helps to more completely burn the regular fuel that you are using, and the extra hydrogen that is added to the mix provides even more fuel energy.

The result? An immediate boost in horsepower, plus better mileage, and more complete combustion (therefore fewer harmful emissions). In fact, you can even use lower-octane gasoline (such as 75-octane), because the on-demand added oxygen from the water gives you all the octane you need.

# History of H2O Injection and AQUAHOL:

U.S. Air Force and H2O Injection: TECTANE CEO Nino De Santis with the Mustang P-51 fighter plane and original H2O injection system. “The P-47D was very much like the P-47C except that H2O injection was made standard for more prolonged combat power, permitting 2300 HP at 27,000 feet, and a top speed of 433 MPH at 30,000 feet. With this capability it was the IDEAL FIGHTER.” — Pilot’s Manual, Forward, P-47 Thunderbolt

Race Cars and H2O Injection: Professional race cars (which use alcohol as an extremely efficient, powerful, safe, clean-burning engine fuel) adapted the H2O injection system after fighter planes, for both added engine power as well as safe, clean combustion.

Diesel and H2O Injection: The H2O injection system has been proven to work effectively on diesel engines. Pictured is TECTANE’s clean exhaust diesel test on a garbage truck in Florida.

Consumer Cars and H2O Injection: TECTANE’s H2O injection Rolls-Royce from the Alternative Fuel Car Race in California, 1993. TECTANE won Best Ecological Patent Award in 1991.

Leisure Cars and H2O Injection: In 1999, TECTANE jointly developed a Beach Buggy called the Humming Bird. The vehicle sported a Peugeot 206 engine outfitted with the TECTANE H2O Injector, which provided added horsepower, better mileage and a longer engine life.

# Corporate Information :
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: TECTANE signed its first Joint Venture Merger with a Chinese (Hong Kong) Public Company on May 18, 2006. Several other mergers are presently being negotiated, in Canada, India, the Philippines and other countries. Stay tuned for more information on upcoming joint ventures and partnerships.

Business Plan Outline: TECTANE Corporation USA holds trade secrets to technologies that address the Climate Change Crisis, Global Warming, Deforestation and alternatives to Nuclear Plants for generating electricity.

The technologies consist of:

A) TECTANE octane alternative; H2O Injector for Gasoline Conventional Engines.

This system produces hydrogen and oxygen from common water, in conventional engines, using the existing heat and pressure of combustion. The TECTANE H2O Injector delivers water through a specifically-designed system that costs under $500 USD and can be installed within 2 to 3 hours. The major advantage of the system is its ability to burn cheap “straight-cut” gasoline, without expensive and poisonous chemicals, such as lead or M.T.B.E. (S.A.E. Tests #215-216) (USDA Feature Bulletin #771-80).

The system can save up to 25% in fuel costs, while reducing emissions significantly. The system can also operate on alcohol fuels or Aquahol, TECTANE’s blend of 80% alcohol and 20% water (E.P.A. Test California).

B) TECTANE Diesel Ceramic H2O Injector.

The diesel system increases efficiency while reducing emissions. Tests conducted by the E.P.A. on N.Y. buses indicated emission reductions ranging from 20-30%, with mileage increases from 10-13%. The kit costs only $500 USD including installation.

Business Strategy: Over $50 million of research and development capital has been invested by the U.S. and Canadian governments in the above technologies within the past 20 years. TECTANE has revised these technologies and merged them together to qualify for new patents. The advent of the United Nations and World Bank’s Global Environmental Facility (G.E.F.), under the mandate for environmental protection, has created a new opportunity for these technologies, with huge grant funds for developing countries. TECTANE has organized a program to transfer these technologies to developing countries, with funds from the G.E.F. program.

TECTANE becomes a partner with the countries and the World Bank. Contracts with these countries will be assigned to a public company, thereby creating capital and high stock value. Ethanol (alcohol) has been positioned under the National Energy Security in America, while the current Alcohol Energy Security Act provides subsidies for the production of fuel ethanol….the huge Cascades/Boralex Corporation. They produce electricity from wood chips for N.Y. State. TECTANE has negotiated a potential 10-year supply agreement for Sweet Sorghum fibers, while ethanol is co-generated from their surplus heat. Cascades is a large pulp and paper corporation, and they have shown that the fibers can be used in the pulp and paper process.Cascades also owns another division which manufactures low-cost fiber housing. This division could also implement the Sweet Sorghum fibers for their pre-fabricated homes.

Since ethanol fuel is now in a stock market bull rush, TECTANE is capturing the opportunity worldwide with its revolutionary technologies and business plan. Fuel station franchises will also be offered, once the ethanol supply from TECTANE’s production partnerships is available. Meanwhile, TECTANE will be offered on the futures markets and stock markets worldwide.

C) TECTANE emission recycling system. This system, now under development, adapts the above technologies and recycles the wasted fuel to combustion, while filtering the emissions. The H2O is created at combustion without the need for a surplus H2O tank.

D) TECTANE Ethanol (alcohol) production program. Hybrid Sweet Sorghum stalks are separated with a splitting technology to capture the sucrose juice for fermentation and distillation to ethanol fuel, while the fiber becomes a valuable by-product for lumber alternatives. The stock also has a flower grain-top that can be used for animal feed or human consumption. A yield of 400-500 gallons per acre has been achieved, compared to the conventional 300-350 gallons per acre from corn.

E) TECTANE separated fiber for pulp/paper, lumber alternatives, including low-cost housing or the generation of electricity in wood burning plants.

F) TECTANE Fiber Housing System. Process utilizes the fiber for the pre-fabrication of a patented low-cost housing formula that requires no lumber from trees and is water-, fire- and termite-proof. Housing structure is also resistant to earthquakes.

G) TECTANE will also be introducing at least one new car with the H2O Injector system incorporated as original equipment.

## SAAB MOTORS, Water Injection. from french website http://www.econologie.com/articles.php?lng=fr&pg=2338

A lot of information about water injection and many other fuel saver systems, but in french 🙂

# – Water Injection is used in aircraft also, since WW2, for Power Boosting of over 45% !

# – AquaTune Water Injection, http://aquatune.com .Would You Believe This?

– From 25% and up increase in fuel economy!
– Up to 30% increase in horse power, and a higher torque range!
– Gets rid of harmful carbon deposits!
– Pass previously failed DEQ checkouts!
– Now available for all motorcycles, including 2-cycle engines. Also for boats and all racing applications.
– We have a 30-day Money-back guarantee.
– Soon to be available for all diesel applications

This is a finely tuned water injection system unlike any other, giving atomization of water and air before going into the engine where it is further atomized, here in turn it collides with the fuel molecules making a highly explosive mixture and expanding the fuel. As this mixture goes into the combustion chamber a marvelous thing happens – a chain reaction. All carbon starts immediately being removed inside the engine to the same state it was in when it was new. This happens because hot carbon and water don’t mix, somewhat like nitro colliding with glycerine and small carbon deposits going by valve seats and helping to break off other deposits…giving a clean sweet machine with a much higher compression ratio and a more complete burning of fuels, making in essence a half steam engine, half gas engine. This makes for a sweet tune, efficient combustion and 15% to 30% more horsepower.
It’s been well known for many years, and still is today, that the steam engine is the most powerful of all engines and still used on aircraft carriers for catapulting jet fighters off the carrier. Also, the water injection was used on the P-38 fighter planes during WW II and at their high altitudes gave the engine a whopping 68% more horse power. Therefore, at 2500 feet above sea level you could expect 38% more horse power; of course, that does depend on the condition of the engine and how well it has been tuned.

… Secondly, AquaTune is like no other water injection system in that it is actuality a fuel cell hydrogen processor. It produces hydrogen-rich bubbles before being introduced into the engine draft. After this it becomes an even more highly enriched hydrogen as it collides with hot metals and combustion and it drops the engine combustion temperature down. Now the engine timing can be advanced up to 7 degrees over factory specifications, if so desired.

…water injection and an ultra-sonic barometric pressure chamber giving off ultra-sonic frequencies which in turn are splitting the hydrogen from the oxygen creating hydrogen-rich bubbles and hydrogen gases…This pressure chamber adjusts to any altitude and is not affected by heat…To further resist corrosion we use nickel-plated nipples going into and out of the unit. It has stainless steel water jetting and internal micron filtration with up to 6 microns assuring that it will never stop up.
Note: most people are reporting from 35% to even higher better fuel mileage… your foot is much higher on the gas pedal to achieve your best miles per hour. We find that most vehicles use two (2) quarts of water to 15 gallons of fuel, depending on driving conditions. At times, we also add a 1/1 ratio of 70% by volume Isopropyl alcohol for added horsepower. This same mixture should be added to the water source in cold climates to keep it from freezing. The Isopropyl alcohol can be purchased at any drugstore or pharmacy.
We highly recommend the use of distilled water to avoid possible mineral buildup…. We have a 30-day money-back guarantee and we guarantee the unit with a five-year warranty on parts and workmanship. (NOTE: Warranty void if unit has been tampered with.) We are the AquaTune Company since 1972 and our best advertising comes from you!

Turning water into a fuel, now and in the future!

1. How does this system work? This system consists of a barometric echo chamber which will allow for high altitude driving and will, also, automatically adjust to sea-level driving. The system will adjust to engine loads down to 2.9 inches of vacuum. This echo chamber gives off high sonic frequencies when vacuum goes through the chamber. Incoming air velocity collides with this tuning fork at 1200 feet per second which in turn vibrates the tuning fork violently. This results in the cracking of the water which makes this system more of a fuel cell than a water injection system…
… One of the beauties of this system is that it does not require any pumps or cumbersome wires or modules. On the AquaTunePlus units, only two wires need to be hooked up…
4….The whole system weighs less than two pounds and can fit in the palm of your hand, that is, without the water reservoir. The contents of this reservoir holds 2 quarts of water.
5. … On average, the contents of this reservoir will last to approximately 14 to 16 gallons of fuel… During cold weather, any temperatures below 50 degrees, it is necessary that isopropyl alcohol, 70% by volume, be added to act as an anti-freeze. As an added boost for racing vehicles, a 50-50 mixture of water and methanol can be used or a 50-50 mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water.
6. What happens if I run out of water? If the water runs out there is no harm to the engine. The only thing that happens is that the fuel economy and the horsepower revert back to what it was before the installation of this system.
7…. This system also keeps engine temperatures down by about 25 degrees Fahrenheit; keeps the O2 sensor clean; keeps the injector stems clean; and, drastically reduces emissions and excessive burning of oil. Fuel efficiency is greatly increased. Drastically reduces unburned fuels and harmful deposits, therefore extending engine life. In fact, the emissions are reduced to the point that the exhaust smells like the by-product of an ozone machine. Both the EGR valve and the catalytic converter are kept clean. Also extends the life of the spark plugs. It stops engine pinging, also known as predetonation…
8…. system is easy to install and takes approximately 1/2 hour to an hour, depending on the persons expertise….Each processor is pre-set in the factory for both water and air injection and is bench-tested to be free of defects. Any tampering to the unit will automatically void the Guarantees
9. Will this system void my new car warranty? No.See Title 15, Chapter 50, Sec. 2301-2312 of the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act.
10. Will putting water into my engine rust the internal parts? No. For one thing heat evaporates the water and also note, engines produce “sweat” naturally and the by-product of engine combustion is water. This is the reason you see moisture escaping through the tail-pipe, particularly in the morning.
11… Water injection systems have been around since the 1930’s. However, they have come and gone in popularity. Ours has remained and is considered the best ever made because this is water injection at it’s highest level.
12… We have found that the best spark plugs to use are standard copper core plugs such as Autolite. Double platinum plugs burn too cool. Standard plugs burn at a higher rate which this system needs. And, at the same time, you are saving money because the copper plugs are less expensive. In the newer vehicles Iridium spark plugs are also acceptable.
13… With this system it’s like adding 108 octane and you will receive the best performance by using ONLY lowest octane grade gasoline possible.

# A comment about ‘Aquatune’ from BoB Boyce found on OUPOWER.com ; http://oupower.com/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=310&postdays=0&postorder=asc&start=15

Bob Boyce, Regular Poster, Posted: Sun Oct 09, 2005 10:36 pm

About $400 + shipping for a glorified repackaged ultrasonic fogger? He must be stoned on something good .
Bob _________________ 2H+O+Spark=BOOM!

– and an answer from eco, Regular Poster, Posted: Mon Oct 10, 2005 10:19 pm :

Water injection only work for turbo or supercharged cars. It doesn’t work for N/A cars. AquaTune is not real water injection. Best solution is water/metanol injection. Lot of water injection has bad design. Homemade water injection is good but you must test lot of diferent injectors sizes and adjust pump pressure. Best result is if you running over 15psi of boost . If water injection working below 5-6 psi is danger because you can overflow engine.

# The AquaTune System installation is a breeze! http://aquatune.com/aquatuneplus.html

The new AquaTunePlus System $699.50 plus $19.80 Priority Shipping insured
(shipping charges are for US delivery only. Please contact AquaTune for shipping outside the US.)

This is a ’90 Corvette 350 IRoc engine with twin venturi injector nozzles and a low-profile distribution block.
Note the reactor feeding the distribution block.

06 Chev. Vortec with 4.8L engine & the AquaTunePlus Kit

Typical Installation of the processor mounted on cowling of an ’04 Buick Rainier with the 4.2L engine.
Note the injection line going to the injection nozzle and the overall simplicity of this installation.

Typical install on ALL dual throttle blade Dodge applications and Jeep, ’93-’00.

This is considered to be a very “clean” installation, done by one of our customers on an ’05 Toyota Corolla S, 1.8L. Please note the use of the brackets for mounting both the distribution block and the processor. This assists in getting as close to the point of entry for a better injection. Also note, the position of the venturi nozzles in the manifold runners.

Injection action in the main hose!

Injectors view.

Due to next generation of AquaTune systems with and without the downstream generators, it has become necessary for a price increase. The new systems are more efficient and, consequently, more costly to produce.

The AquaTunePlus System
AquaTune Plus far exceeds all other water injection systems on the market today. Here is why: Unlike pressurized water injection systems, the release of energy from pressurized water during the combustion cycle is largely wasted and consequently most all the energy is wasted through the exhaust cycle. The H2O molecule structure in pressurized water is tightly bonded together. Even in a fine mist concentration a 20% release of energy would be considered good during the combustion cycle. Pressurized water is also difficult to dissipate once inside the intake manifold or collected on the intake valve seats. This residue would also accumulate on the turbine blades whether it is a turbo- charged or supercharged vehicle. This has been known to give water injection a bad name. This is not the case with AquaTune Plus. AquaTune Plus pre-explodes the water, in other words, “cracking” the water, which gives a complete foundation for releasing the energy before and during the combustion cycle. When the “cracked” water collides with the fossil fuel, it rapidly expands the fuel giving it a higher BTU rate and maintaining a lower combustion temperature while giving a higher compression ratio and still lowering the oil temperatures by approximately 25 degrees. Here is how the processor is able to explode and crack the water: Water is brought through very precise jetting and then through a tuning fork. Incoming air traveling through intruded turbines hit the tuning fork at 1,200 feet per second, the water injection then travels down through a spiral chamber to the echo cracking chamber where it collides with a ram spiral air injection. Namely, two tornadoes colliding together at the same time; one, the spiral velocity chamber and two, the ram induction chamber. Hence, violently “cracking” the water. The injection is then brought into a precious metal grid hydrogen generator. The generator is powered up by a 12-volt battery and it is powered up only when the engine is running and shuts off automatically when the engine is shut off. Therefore, you never need to worry about the battery being drained or unwanted hydrogen being produced. The generator creates large concentrations of hydrogen on demand making the injection a very high potency injection. From here it then goes from the generator to the venturi injector nozzle. The incoming air passing the specialized venturi injector nozzle creates a vacuum zone which powers up the processor. This injection is quite explosive in the combustion chamber.

Four years of research and development makes AquaTune Plus the best system on the market today. It makes other water injection systems and hydrogen producing systems obsolete. For all intents and purposes, this is the only system that has the right to be called a fuel cell with hydrogen on demand. We are turning water into fuel, both today and in the future.

Here is what you can expect from our system: up to 30% more hp; oil temperatures down by 25 degrees; gives higher air charge density; no more pre-detonation, even on turbo and supercharged vehicles; removes all carbon build-up in the combustion chamber, valve seats, EGR passways and cleans up sticking rings; keeps the oil cleaner and prolongs oil viscosity life; drastically prolongs engine life; and 25%, or more, increase in the fuel economy.

… 30 Day Money Back Guarantee if your unit does not does not give you the results installed as under the guidelines set out! (Please see Disclaimer)

You can order the AquaTunePlus Water Injection System direct from AquaTune.com by the following methods: 1. By Mail – 2. By Phone – 3. By Internet

AquaTune Customer Testimonials (Large number of recent testimonials, 2006) http://aquatune.com/testimonials.html

# – AQUAMIST the final frontier… aquamist is ERL’s latest generation of water-injection equipment. http://www.aquamist.co.uk/index.html

The main function of these systems is to suppress detonation caused by high temperature and pressure developed within the combustion chamber when the effective compression ratio has been taken beyond the auto-ignition point by either a turbo or a supercharger.

Water, with its high latent heat content, is extremely effective for controlling not only the onset of detonation but also theproduction of oxides of nitrogen in the modern leanburn engines.SYSTEM 2d Latest addition for 2003 – Full 3-D water injection system without programming! It keeps track of the fuel flow and inject water with a fixed w/f ratio, change jet for different ratios.

Introduction: For those who wants a 3-D water injection MAP but do not want to spend the time-consuming task of mapping, this system is perfect for you.

The heart of the system is a newly developed controller that reads the PWM signal from the engine’s fuel injector (including Peak and Hold type) and convert it to drive the High Speed Valve to deliver water, it draws less than 10ma from the pulsed line. This will enable the water injection to follow a fixed water/fuel ratio.

A 3-30psi Adjustable Pressure Switch (normally closed) sets the cut-in point relative to the manifold pressure. It just cannot be simpler for the user.
The system provides a pre-pressurised water line up to 8 bars and the flow rate is metered by our High speed Valve (HSV). This inline valve is made of high grade Stainless steel. As usual, except for the water tank, the system is supplied with everything needed to be fitted with ease.

The Fuel Injection Amplifier v2 (FiA2) …

Concealed inside this tiny exterior, it holds a very important diagnostic circuitry – it will detect BLOCKED water jet !!!
… it reads the pulsed signal form the centre pin of the Aquamist pump and compares it to the water valve pulses and flags an error signal to yet another 1.5A output drive to trigger a relay or a boost limiting solenoid valve to bring the boost pressure to a safe level should a blocked jet be detected. being injected ( preset manifold pressure is reached). MF2 injector driver This small controller will go beyond what any EPROM chip can ever dream of: it can control four high impedance injectors to flow enough fuel for up to an extra 200bhp!

Full details about Water Injection, in French, at http://www.econologie.com/articles.php?lng=fr&pg=2338

# Industrial Use of Water Injection, for Power Plants, by Power Generation Technology (PGT) , 2006, http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:PowerPlus_by_Power_Generation_Technology and http://pepei.pennnet.com/articles/article_display.cfm?article_id=256018

The UK’s Power Generation Technology (PGT) has announced the development of PowerPlus, retrofit water overspray system for power station gas turbines that it claims can reduce emissions by 40 per cent. This equipment also dramatically reduces turbine fuel consumption and increases power generation.

How it Works
PowerPlus injects minute jets of water into the turbines through a patented system, which cools the unit. By keeping the unit cool emissions are radically reduced alongside a 25 per cent drop in turbine fuel consumption. Turbines then become more efficient and can generate an additional 25 per cent of power.

PGT says that a power station operating eight 200 MW gas turbines fitted with PowerPlus units can save up to £150m ($280m) in fuel every year as well as generate extra revenue of up to £80m through increased megawatt production.

Inventor: Tony Archer
PowerPlus is the brainchild of Power Generation Technology Ltd’s Chief Executive Tony Archer.
Archer is a mechanical engineer with almost 30 years experience in the power and petrochemical industries.

Power Generation Technology Ltd is backed by a group of investors, including Sheikh Alli Said Al Harthy who is a member of the Royal Family of Oman.

Stage of Development
Five global organizations have signaled their intentions to install this new technology, which could lead to potential contracts worth between £12.5m and £200m.

The Chinese government has expressed an interested in the device for its 10,000 power stations, a contract that could be worth £45bn to PGT.

PGT has production and maintenance agreements with a number of key UK companies including NEL and specialist machine manufacturers, Fairless.

Initially, around 50 Tees Valley-based engineering specialists, manufacturers and equipment suppliers will be involved in the manufacture and maintenance of PowerPlus units. In addition, Power Generation Technology Ltd is creating an initial 15 new jobs and investing in a planned new head office building in Billingham. The company has also established offices and workshops in Oman and China.