Water as FUEL


SUPER SPARK PLUGS – Fuel Savers

Other Fuel Savers: SUPER SPARK PLUGS

SUPER SPARK PLUGS and HOT WIRE systems, on the market, to save fuel or may be Explode water:

## Jakobsen, Yngve, PCT/FR2005/002564, Modified Sparkplugs for Fuel Saving and Power Increase http://www.c2bs-bougies.com/page/technique.htm

The combustion being largely increased because of the ‘vortex’ effect created by the side holes, the oil is burned at 95%, the exhaust is cleaner, and the carbon deposit on the plugs disapear, and give them very long life !!

We observed on the standard sparkplugs, after 10,000 kms, the appearance of a small crater under the negative electrode. There carbon deposit accumulates, reducing considerabely the electric conductivity, and then the sparking power.

With this new sparkplug this problem is eliminated because the small hole on the electrode helps to clean the electrodes through gaz circulation and pyrolysis effect.

# Official website, in French : http://www.c2bs-bougies.com/

## Sonic Spark PLugs, U.S. Patent No. 5,610,470 http://www.enginebrain.com/

EASILY add up to 15 Horsepower. With patented Sonic Spark Plugs, miles ahead of every other plug.

They look like normal spark plugs, but they have a powerful ultrasound generator in the tip. This shatters gasoline mist microseconds before it burns, energizing the fuel droplets before combustion. Your car, truck or motorcycle will have more power and get better mileage because combustion is dramatically improved.

How do they work in your engine?
During the compression stroke, the recess in the center electrode is charged with fuel mixture. With Spark Ignition, a Ultra Sonic Shock Wave is projected through the hole in the Ground Electrode, and generates very intense Ultrasonic Harmonics which shatters the fuel droplets. The burn of the Fuel and Oxygen is accelerated for almost complete combustion efficiency. Which results in:

The Super Sonic Spark Plugs, U.S. Patent No. 5,610,470 are a precision modification of brand name spark plugs as per manufacturers engine specifications.

To Order, Call Toll-Free:1-800-243-6674
$6.95 each ; for most cars and trucks ; Special performance applications are higher.

Shipping and handling is $8 for all orders. All orders ship by Priority Mail. Colorado residents add appropriate sales tax.
Or Send Us An Email davewofsey@yahoo.com ; Sonic Spark™, LLC 747 Sheridan Blvd., Unit 3B Lakewood, Colorado 80214 ; Local: (303) 936-2085 Fax: (303) 936-1416

Satisfied Customers Write Back :

“…I was getting 23.2 miles per gallon in the Cadillac, after your plugs the mileage went up to 28.6 MPG” — W.L.

“…I was amazed at the acceleration that I received… tank after tank of gas has shown me an increase of 5 to 6 miles to each gallon.” — M.G.

“…The increase in power has been at least 20%. The increase in miles per gallon is already about 20%. This is the best thing I have done for my car, and I recommend it highly.” — M.S.

“…My 6.5 KW Onan Generator is leased at shows and fairs. With the Sonic Spark Plugs installed, I have a quick start, and the plugs don’t foul to cause a power shut down. The generators never miss a beat when switching heavy loads.” –B.H.

How Do I Install These? Sonic Spark Plugs are PRE-GAPPED, so you simply need to take out the old plugs and put in Sonic Spark Plugs. **Please note: Sonic Spark Plugs are more efficient than conventional plugs, so your vehicle’s on-board computer will need to be reset. To do this, simply disconnect both leads to your battery and touch the leads together, which will reset the on-board computer.

How are these plugs made? We start out with premium Autolite and NGK brand spark plugs, and modify them with our patented process. But before they are modified, they are put through a second battery of quality-control checks, since not all spark plugs are precisely-manufactured enough to handle our modifications. Then the plugs are carefully adjusted, machined and custom-modified to work optimally with every customer’s vehicle. Your spark plugs get a lot of attention before they end up in your car or truck.

Why are they factory-gapped? After twenty years of experience developing Sonic Spark Plugs and installing them in a variety of different vehicles, we’ve found that slight variations to factory-specified gaps, often produces better efficiency. We’ve also found that slight variations can help improve performance for different areas of the country, depending on altitude, and the type of gas additives (MTBE, alcohol) used.

When do you start with NGK or Autolite plugs? Generally, the Japanese vehicles use NGK, and the U.S. and European vehicles like Autolite. But both plugs will generally work fine in either type of engine.

My car’s engine isn’t in great shape. Can Sonic Spark Plugs help me? Sorry, our plugs are designed for well-tuned engines. Put them in a defective engine and you will not see a difference, except that you will quickly foul-up a new set of plugs.

What about Platinum and Titanium plugs? We used to use Platinum plugs, but we discovered that the conventional metal gives the best results for most applications. This is because conventional copper-alloy oxidizes just a little bit, which makes for the ideal conductor. Platinum is long-wearing, but for people who take good care of their vehicles, we recommend conventional copper-alloy plugs. Titanium is also good, but a bit untested.

What about Split FireTM, Bosch® and other high-performance plugs? They’re decent plugs. But they can’t do what Sonic Spark Plugs can do, because they don’t have our patented ultrasound yet.

## 1996, Robert Krupa , Farmington Hills, Michigan, Firestorm Plasma Spark Plug, US patents US5936332 and US6060822, http://www.robertstanley.biz/firestorm.htm

– Interview with Firestorm inventor, Robert Krupa, by Robert Stanley © October 2004, Email: rstanley@socal.rr.com, abstract:

STANLEY: Regarding your FireStorm spark plugs, because you are changing the air-fuel ratio to one that is much more lean… doesn’t that increase the temperature inside the combustion chamber?
KRUPA: Yes when using regular spark plugs it does. But with FireStorm spark plugs the temperature actually goes down.

… I had the car running at 40 to 1 air-to-fuel ratio.

KRUPA: Well, I got some good words from Bosch out of Stuttgart, Germany. I had a chance to meet with some of their people here in Farmington, Michigan. And I gave them a set of FireStorm plugs to test and almost ten weeks later they came back and said, “This is unbelievable. We have never seen this since we have been building spark plugs”
…
KRUPA: Correct. When spark plugs fire for a long time, the gap grows larger. The ground burns up and the center electrode burns down. Bosch conducted an eight-week long durability test of my FireStorm plugs against their best and they said that the FireStorm plugs produced zero percent gap growth. And so they predicted that it will never wear out.

… I went through a 55-gallon drum full of used grimy spark plugs. I went through all of them very carefully and found that the older the plug the more the center electrode of the plug was worn all around so there was no edge. It took the shape of a small ball A half a ball to be exact – a dome.

…And don’t forget increased fuel economy. On this Chevy, Suburban that I towed a 32-foot Airstream trailer from Detroit to Tampa… I got a 50% increase in fuel economy. And I had disconnected the EGR and the recirculation system on that truck. It was over 8,500 pounds gross weight. It wasn’t required to meet exhaust emissions standards. But I still met emissions standards with it using FireStorm plugs.
…

KRUPA: They tried running lean but the spark plugs will not fire when the mixture is too lean.

STANLEY: Right. I was told that if you try to run an engine too lean the temperature goes way up and causes a loss of power, premature wear and other problems.

KRUPA: It does if you use regular plugs, but my plugs produce a plasma and for some reason the temperature goes down. That’s the amazing part!

STANLEY: You mentioned earlier something about eliminating RFI (Radio Frequency Interference) – the noise you hear from your engine when your AM radio is on and you drive under an overpass?

KRUPA: To reduce RFI the spark plug companies put resistors in the spark plugs and the spark plug wires. They are built in 3 pieces. The lower electrode is separated from the upper electrode by carbon – that’s your resistor.

STANLEY: But doesn’t that reduce the volume of the potential spark?

KRUPA: Oh yeah! Big time! When you are putting a resistor in there you are depleting from what ever spark you can normally develop in the combustion chamber.

… The important thing to understand is that automotive companies have been trying to discover a way to run their engines lean for many years now. And I was able to lean an engine all the way out to 40 to 1 using my FireStorm plugs.

KRUPA: Yeah! Forty parts of air to one part fuel is extremely lean.
…
KRUPA: Yes. A 14.7 to 1 air-fuel ratio is always going to be incomplete combustion. That’s the rule. FireStorm is the exception. It burns everything in the combustion chamber. It burns it clean.
…
KRUPA: When I was doing some of the early testing, I hooked up an emissions analyzer to the car and I had equipment in the car to change air-fuel ratio and idle speeds. I was doing this at an automotive after market speed shop. The guys were coming over to see what I was doing. I had my test vehicle running at 250 RPM.
…
STANLEY: What did the engine run like at that ultra-low idle?

KRUPA: It just loped along really smooth, but it was constant. No hesitation or misfires. It’s a sound like you have never heard before.
Anyone that heard an engine before would turn their head to see where the sound was coming from.

STANLEY: Wouldn’t that also save a lot of fuel, if you could tune an engine’s idle down that low?

KRUPA: Oh, absolutely! When I did that test on a T-Bird and got a 44% increase in fuel economy I was using the air conditioner at the time.
…
KRUPA: I can pull more RPMs and power out of an engine and still deliver better fuel economy.
…
KRUPA: Yes. Because even at extremely high speeds of operation the FireStorm plugs still produce plasma that burns all the fuel in the internal combustion chamber. A regular plug, with its tiny little spark, is not going to fire well in a combustion chamber that’s running at high speed.

KRUPA: Everyone I have been involved with, when they see this thing running, they can’t believe their eyes. It completely revamps what everyone thought about internal combustion engines.
In fact, I met Smokey Yunick … He came around the corner and sniffed again. Then he came up to where the plug was firing and sniffed again, and said, “Now I know how you are running less throttle and getting the same speed. You’re producing ozone!”
One of his tricks was to blow compressed air over a test plug to see if it would flame out. Anyway, I asked him for a compressed air hose and nozzle. I plugged the nozzle in and aimed it at the FireStorm plug. I pulled the trigger on the air hose and a spray of water came shooting out.

KRUPA: But the amazing thing was that the FireStorm plug was firing through the water and then when the air hit it the damn thing grew to the size of a golf ball.

STANLEY: Wait, the air stream made it grow bigger?

KRUPA: Yeah! It looked bigger then like a blow torch.
…
STANLEY: In your video of the FireStorm spark plugs firing on a test stand I noticed that the electric plasma swirls around the combustion chamber like a little tornado. Why is that?

KRUPA: I have coined the term, “Residual Ionization” to address the effect of the firing of the FireStorm spark plug. When a generic spark plug fires in a pressure chamber or your vehicle, it will fire six to eight times and then misfire once. The misfire is caused by the “Residual-Ionization” left around the plug proper. When the charge comes down the center electrode, it sees a high impedance and cannot jump the gap, hence a “Misfire”.
There is also “Residual Ionization” left over in the “FireStorm” spark plug. However, because of the Huge Surface Area in the configuration of the “BALL”, and the triaxial ground system, when the “Residual-Ionization” rears it’s ugly head, the charge coming down the center electrode sees it and moves to the next area under the Triaxial Ground System. That’s why the plasma appears to move around the ball in a circular motion.

## THE REVOLUTIONARY FIRESTORM SPARK PLUG, Nexus magazine, Volume 12, Number 2 (February – March 2005) http://www.nexusmagazine.com/articles/Firestorm.html

FireStorm’s Capabilities. First, let’s look at what Krupa’s FireStorm spark plugs give an internal combustion engine:

…More horsepower;
…44-50% increase in mpg;
…Dramatic decrease in emissions.

Second, let’s see what FireStorm plugs eliminate:

…Smog pump;
…Catalytic converter;
…Radio frequency interference (RFI) and the use of resistors in the centre electrode;
…Gap growth;
…Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems;
…Misfire/hesitation/detonation/stutter and stumble.

The revolutionary design of FireStorm spark plugs creates an electric plasma that fills the entire combustion chamber like a firestorm. It allows you to take an internal combustion engine from the standard 14.7:1 air-to-fuel ratio to an incredibly lean 24:1. At this ratio, all the air/fuel mixture is burned much more efficiently without increasing heat, thus giving an engine more power and fuel economy while creating much less pollution.

Performance and Testing:
When I asked Krupa if there were ny other advantages to using FireStorm spark plugs, he explained: “If there is a vehicle that requires premium fuel and they install FireStorm plugs and perform the modifications I suggest…they could run regular fuel in the engine and it won’t detonate, hesitate, ping or misfire. The only reason you need higher octane fuel is for higher compression engines. And if an engine is pulling a heavy load, it has a tendency to go into detonation with a regular spark plug.”

Acclaim and Potential:
Krupa’s new FireStorm spark plug is in a league all of its own. It has received rave reviews from a major spark plug company. Krupa explained: “Bosch conducted an eight-week-long durability test of my FireStorm plugs against their best, and they said that the FireStorm plugs produced zero per cent gap growth. And they predicted that [the plugs] will never wear out.”
That might be one reason spark plug companies are not interested in manufacturing the FireStorm. Another big reason is that the currently used standard design of spark plugs would rapidly become obsolete.
Consider this: annually, there are over six billion spark plugs made and sold worldwide. Krupa’s team at CDI Limited estimates that the FireStorm spark plug will cost US$1.50 per unit initially to manufacture. The team also estimates that once FireStorm spark plugs become available, they will quickly capture 80% of the market share-even if they cost $10.00 or more per plug. That equals a lot of money.

## see also internet forum : http://www.icubenetwork.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=277

Posted: Wed Oct 26, 2005 10:50 am:
To All . Looks like the key to water cars is plasma, by whatever means produced (B-gas, plasma ignitions, sparkplugs, sparkplug wires etc).
See http://stanleymeyer.com/userupload/2/instant_water_explosion.pdf and videos http://24.19.82.127/egas/files/water1.wmv

http://24.19.82.127/egas/files/waterdrop1.wmv

A typical PRODUCTION 2-liter car requires about 200 liters of H-gas plus Air per minute. If it was running on B-gas it would require 6-10 times less gas per minute and elaborate setup.
Gasoline engine requires modifications so that B-gas could be forced into cylinders otherwise engine’s full rated hp will not be realized (w/o modifications V4 car will need V8 engine).
Al

## From : The Key to the Firestorm Plugs.pdf :

Firestorm Plugs: Design Suggestions

It is entirely possible that the easiest solution for making a Firestorm type plug would be to just knock off the ground electrode(s) from a normal plug. This would allow the ‘ground’ side to be equidistant from the center electrode, BUT there is still a problem because there would still be a central POINT at the center electrode where there will occur the residual ionization. Therefore, at the least, for the knocking off of the ground electrode(s) to even work the center electrode would have to be either hammered down or have material added to it so that there is more SURFACE AREA for the ‘ground’ sides of the plug to arc to, and this would allow for a Firestorm type operation.
The main problem will making a Firestorm is in making the center electrode EQUIDISTANT from the ground electrode(s). If there isn’t a large equidistant surface areas for the arcs, or is part of the plug’s electrodes are closer then other parts, then the arcs will most likely only arcs in those regions.
The idea and solution to making a Firestorm type plug is this: Take a normal plug and increase the AREA of the center electrode and make sure the ground electrode(s), be them on the sides or above the center electrode, are equidistant from that center electrode. This is the whole key to the Firestorm plugs.

See also : http://www.empirenet.com/pkelley2/sparkplugreading.html

## Testing Spark Plug Wires, by David Kucharczyk, ssr@netcom.com, http://www.mr2.com/TEXT/DavidKucharczyk/ignition.html

There has been much discussion of aftermarket ignition systems and wires on the mailing list, particularly with respect to the aftermarket Nology wires. People who have used them had varying results. Everything from massive EM interference that caused the ECU failures to cars running high boost who’s owners had excellent results. Nology’s print ads make claims about increased horsepower, stronger spark including numbers for arc temperature and current. The makers of the wires claim that a capacitor integrated into the wire is the secret.

I collected 4 different wires and conducted several tests and measurements on them to try and have some scientific and reproducible data. The results are surprising. The Nology wires do produce a stronger spark than a stock wire and the capacitor does have an effect. One reason that the Nology wires make a stronger spark is that they have a lower resistance than any other wire tested. With the capacitor portion of the wire disabled the wires still had the strongest spark. Grounding the capacitor wire did make the spark even stronger.

… A stronger spark does not always equal more HP. If your stock ignition is reliably lighting the mixture, you can add as much spark energy as you want, but it won’t make any more horsepower. To date no independent dynamometer test I know of has shown any increase in horsepower over stock wires that were working properly.

Spark Ignition Requirements

To ignite a stoichiometric air-fuel mixture (14:1) approximately 0.2 milliJoules of spark energy are required. Very rich or lean mixtures can require as much as 3 mJ. Most coils are capable of storing 60 to 120 mJ of energy and will produce an output voltage of over 30 kilovolts. Spark duration for a coil storage ignition (where the spark energy is generated by the collapse of a built up magnetic field of the primary coil winding) runs between 1 and 3 milliseconds. Capacitive discharge systems tend to have shorter spark duration.
The energy generated by the coil must be delivered to the spark plug gap with enough energy to still ignite the mixture. Power is lost across the distributor gap, via leakage of the wires insulators and any in-line resistances such as the wires and resistors inside the spark plugs themselves.

Longer spark duration and larger spark distance both increase the probability that a given mixture will be ignited by the spark. Turbulence in the mixture itself also helps ignition, although too much airflow can blow out a spark or prevent it’s formation.

… In a spark plug, gas (air and vaporized gasoline) provides the insulator which is broken down. Generally, the initial breakdown voltage is higher in gases with higher molecular weights, so adding gasoline to the mixture increases the breakdown voltage. Increased pressure also increases the breakdown voltage. The relationship of pressure vs. breakdown voltage is also affected by the distance between the two electrodes and a combined pressure X spacing number is used. At pressure X spacing values over 1 (N/m^2)m the relationship is nearly linear, ie a 10 X increase in pressure will yield almost a 10 X increase in breakdown voltage. Air has a breakdown voltage of 1000 volts at a pressure spacing value of 10.

What all the above means with regard to igniting the mixture in a motor is; The higher the cylinder pressure and the more fuel there is, the higher the voltage needs to be to start a spark.
Once the arc is started, any airflow over the electrodes has a tendency to carry the ionized (conducting) gas away and blow the arc out. As soon as the arc breaks apart, the voltage rises gain and the arc may re-form. If the airflow is high enough to carry the partially ionized gas away faster than it can re-form, the spark will blow out.

Spark Plug Wires

Spark plug wires are made of a conductive core and typically silicone rubber insulation. The core is usually a carbon impregnated fiber or wire. The conducting core is bent over at the wire end and the boot metal is crimped over the core/insulation of the wire. Many aftermarket wires come with no boots, which allows one to add the boots of choice and cut the wires to the desired length.
Most OEM wires use a carbon fiber as this produces minimal RF noise. The down side of carbon fibers is high resistance and thus reduced spark energy. Solid wires have very low resistance, but typically produce unacceptable amounts of RF interference, frequently causing interference in radios (in the installed vehicle as well as nearby radios). This interference can also produce problems with any electronic equipment used inside the car such as fuel injection, panel meters and ABS systems. Spectral output from ignition wires can be anywhere from 10kHz to over 10GHz. Some wires use a solid metal core that is helically wound to cause the wire to look inductive at high frequencies and minimize EM radiation.
Silicones have a resistivity of 10^9 to 10^11 ohms per meter (between 1 and 100M ohms per mm). Given a core diameter of 2mm and insulation diameter of 7mm that’s only 2.5mm of insulation from the core to the outside world and most wires actually leak a considerable amount of energy to their outer shell.

… The Nology wires capacitors are formed by simply wrapping a wire braid around a segment of the wire and then grounding it. Construction is very similar to coaxial cable. This braid forms one side of the capacitor plate and the center conductor forms the other. Nology uses a carbon fiber type center conductor, but it has a much lower resistance than the other fiber wires tested. The braid also acts as a shield to prevent EM radiation. The capacitance is evenly distributed along the length of the braid and the center conductors resistance is distributed along it’s length.
The capacitors become charged during the initial voltage rise. When the gas breaks down and current starts to flow across the spark gap, the coil energy must flow through the coil wire resistance, the distributor gap and the resistance of the individual spark plug wire. The capacitors however, discharge directly through the gap, with only a short piece of the plug wire providing resistance in their path.
The measured value of 35pF of capacitence is misleading in the fact that although the wires have 35pF of capacitence at the 2 volts that the capacitence meter measures them with, as the voltage increases, the wires leak more, thus decreasing the effective capacitance as the voltage rises. The calculated value of energy storage for a 35pF capacitor at 15kV is 1/2CV^2 or about 4 J, well in excess of the storage capacity of the coil itself. Although one might expect the capacitors to absorb a significant part of the coil energy and cause considerable voltage droop, they don’t. As the picture above show, the Nology wires could develop a spark across a 20mm gap.
Permission is granted to reprint in any form for non-profit organizations only on the condition that copyright notice is retained.

## NOLOGY, HOTWIRES,$144.95 : http://www.nology.com or http://www.rx-7parts.com

If you’re not using HotWires, you’re not going as fast as you could be.

HotWires create a tremendously powerful plasma discharge that ignites every fuel mixture, rich or lean, much better than a conventional spark. Combustion is more complete, resulting in increased horsepower and lower exhaust emissions.

HotWires are engineered with a special built-in capacitor, exclusive only to HotWires. This revolutionary design allows spark energy to accumulate in the capacitor until the voltage reaches the ionization point. At that split second, the entire power of the stored spark is discharged at once. The resulting spark is up to 300 times more powerful. Combustion is faster and more complete, resulting in increased horsepower and a cleaner burn. Replacing conventional ignition wires with HotWires is the easiest way to increase the performance of any engine. HotWires can be custom-made to fit nearly any application.

## DIRECT HITS Plasma Spark System: http://www.directhits.com

Question: How long does DirectHits last?
Answer: DirectHits is expected to last the life of the vehicle.

Question: What kind of improvement will I see in the performance or operation of my car after installation of DirectHits?
Answer: DirectHits will improve the entire combustion process. Your results will depend on your vehicle’s age and type as well as your driving habits. However, our test vehicles report fuel economy gains of up to 30%, easier starting, improved throttle response, greater acceleration, smoothness of operation, elimination of ignition delay and a reduction of emissions.

Question: Do I need to make any modifications to my engine to use DirectHits?
Answer: No. DirectHits adapts to all engines and operates within the operating specifications of all currently available ignition systems, whether from the factory or aftermarket. You will need to reset the engine computer before operating the vehicle once DirectHits is installed.

## Extreme spark: http://www.torquemaster.com/ . The New Location of Torque Master Spark Plugs.

The world’s only spark plug capable of increasing your performance!
The Torque Master spark plug has been designed, engineered and manufactured to provide maximum horsepower, torque, fuel economy and reduced emissions. Our unique, patented “Field Effect” design also gives the Torque Master spark plug the ability to last many times longer than conventional spark plugs.

Regarding spark plug gap, we only make two sizes. Our standard size, which has an equivalent gap of about .120″ and the “S” plug, which has an equivalent gap of about .090″. The standard plug requires between 21,000 to 25,000 volts to fire under full pressure. Our “S” plugs require between 16,000 to 18,000 volts to fire under full pressure. The “S” plugs are designed for high compression racing applications, turbocharged, supercharged, NOS, etc. The gap on a Torque Master spark plug cannot be changed as it is an integral part of the overall design.

… Many factors contribute to the foregoing, such as: compression ration, combustion chamber shape, spark plug location, spark plug type, ignition system and ignition coil, intake fuel and air temperature, and the temperature of the engine itself.
The last, engine temperature, is of extreme importance.

Why Delayed burn is BAD?
If the ignition point of combustion is weak, as with “Delayed Burn”, the crankshaft can actually rotate to to 20 degrees past TC. Having done so, the piston can’t take full advantage of all the available expanding gases created by combustion. The result is a big loss of power and torque.

Why Torque Master Spark Plugs?
We don’t believe that “Delayed Burn” can be completely cured because nothing is perfect. We do believe that with the installation of a new set of Torque Master spark plugs, “Delayed Burn” can be held to a minimum. Torque Master spark plugs make horsepower and torque on their own, no other spark plug can match this kind of combustion efficiency. The Torque Master spark plug will deliver 100% to 200% more spark exposure to the combustion mixture.

Field Effect
Our spark plugs are the only spark plugs that utilize a patented ultra-wide gap with 360 degrees of fire power supported by our exclusive “Field Effect” design. The “Field Effect” principle helps propagate the spark across an unprecedented .120″ to .140″ gap. Additionally, our plugs operate using the same voltage as would be required from conventional spark plugs gapped at.045″ to .060″.

## HALOPLUG : http://www.haloplug.com/

The Quenching Effect is Lessened with HaloTM Plugs.
Quenching Effect – The amount of spark which is absorbed (blocked) by the center and ground electrode is referred to as the quenching effect. The HALO™ spark plug is designed to allow the flame kernel to go through the halo shape of the ground electrode rather than blocking its natural growth pattern. Thus, the quenching effect is virtually eliminated, resulting in quicker, more complete and more effective combustion.

More miles per gallon with Halot Plug

… The U.S. Patent Office specifically requested performance comparison tests between the Halo and two other patents, the Wang and Lara spark plug designs. These tests revealed significant improvements in both horsepower and torque to the satisfaction of patent examiners.

… Halo Plug has a quicker initiation of the combustion process by increasing the fuel access to the spark. This quicker initiation of combustion results in more complete burning of the fuel inside the combustion chamber. This yields more power from a given volume of fuel due to more efficient consumption. This also leads to improved horsepower output for the engine.

## SmartFire®, PLASMA IGNITION SYSTEM .An exotic ignition system that can:

– Vary spark energy (1 amp to 100 amps)
– Real time individual cylinder knock detection (every cylinder every time)
– Real time individual cylinder misfire detection (every cylinder every time)
– Operate one to twelve cylinders
– Log or display combustion information on your PC
– Provide individual cylinder timing offsets

Ignition Process :
A spark is formed by discharging a 600 volt capacitor into a coil primary. The coil steps this voltage up to several thousand volts within 1 uS. This causes the spark to jump the gap, similar to a typical CD ignition. The spark reaches 1 amp and then decays for approx 40 microseconds. Additional current can be achieved by previously biasing the extra capacitor, located inside each coil’s secondary. If this extra capacitor is not biased, then the CD ignition is not disturbed. If this extra capacitor is biased, then the added energy will discharge into the spark gap. This discharge will occur as soon as the spark is created. Since this energy delivery does not have to go through the ignition coil it delivers up to 100 amps to the spark gap, only for a couple microseconds. Therefore the remaining 38 microseconds only consist of the 1 amp decay.

Remark : I think this Smart Fire System is the solution for THE WATER EXPLOSION CAR, because it can deliver 100Amp on the spark, more than enough to reproduce the effect of s1r9a9m9 Watercar … to be tested…

## Pulstar™ pulse plugs, Pulse Plugs boost horsepower, torque and fuel economy : http://www.pulstarplug.com/index.html

Welcome to Enerpulse, Incorporated and our newest innovation, Pulstar™ pulse plugs. Pulse plugs are truly a breakthrough in ignition technology that for 100 years has been dominated by weak, 50-watt spark plugs. Pulstar™ pulse plugs generate up to 1 million watts of power, which ignites fuel more completely, transforming your car into a more fuel-efficient vehicle that is a lot more fun to drive.

Enerpulse is headquartered in Albuquerque, New Mexico. We’re a 10-year old company that specializes in developing environmentally friendly ignition products through the application of pulse power technology. With the assistance of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, we developed Pulstar™ to increase the peak power of the spark by 20,000 times and ignite gasoline in the engine’s cylinder more completely, with less cycle-to-cycle variation. The result is more engine torque, more horsepower and better fuel economy.

One of the most common questions we are asked about Pulstar™ is, “Will its high power damage my engine?” The simple answer is no, because the high power event lasts only for 2 nanoseconds (billionths of a second). This very brief moment is enough to ignite the fuel in the cylinder, but too brief to overheat the combustion chamber or metal engine components. So you can install PulStar™ pulse plugs with the confidence that it will neither harm your engine nor void your manufacturer’s warranty.

Pulstar™ looks like a spark plug because it was designed to fit into the same hole in your engine. But, internally, Pulstar™ is very different, incorporating a pulse circuit no other plug has. This is why we call Pulstar™ a “pulse plug” and not a spark plug. When you see and feel how Pulstar™ works compared to spark plugs, you too will be convinced that this technological breakthrough will change your driving experience and why a pulse plug is in your future.

Pulse plugs incorporate a pulse circuit, which stores incoming electrical energy from the ignition system and releases the stored energy in a powerful pulse of power. Instead of 50 watts of peak power typical of all spark plugs, pulse plugs deliver up to 1 million watts of peak power. So where does the pulse plug get its incredible power?

When the ignition signal is sent to a traditional spark plug, it begins to ionize the spark gap. This means that the voltage builds in the gap until a spark can be formed. During this ionization phase, which lasts about 5 millionths of a second, the incoming voltage (which has nowhere to go) heats up ignition components including the spark plug. This is wasted energy. When the ignition voltage overcomes the resistance in the spark gap, the spark is created with an initial discharge of approximately 50 watts. Once created, the spark resides between the electrodes at very low power for over a period of 30 millionths of a second.

What is different about a pulse plug is that instead of heating ignition parts during the ionization phase, this energy is stored in the integral circuit inside the pulse plug. When the ignition power overcomes the resistance in the spark gap, the pulse circuit discharges all of its accumulated power – 1 million watts – in 2 billionths of a second!

Tests at an independent laboratory demonstrate how Pulstar™ pulse plugs burn fuel more efficiently than spark plugs. In this high-speed video (shot at 68,000 frames per second), you can actually see the ignition plume of Pulstar™ growing at more than twice the speed of the spark plug. Pulstar™ generates a much larger spark than spark plugs, which reduces overall burn time and burns the fuel more completely. Once created, the spark dissipates over a period of 30 millionths of a second.

With increased cylinder pressure, the pistons are pushed down with more force, which, in turn, generates more torque in the crankshaft, more liveliness to the throttle and more power to the wheels.

Of course, if you don’t use this torque to go faster, the engine does its work with less effort resulting in better fuel economy.

Another way that Pulstar™ improves efficiency is by reducing cycle-to-cycle variation. Cycle-to-cycle variation occurs in every engine to some degree and is caused by the dynamics of combustion, load, fuel quality, mixture of air to fuel and many other combustion variables. These variables can cause the spark plug to generate a weak spark and in the worst case, a misfire. This variability in ignition timing robs all spark ignited, internal combustion engines of up to 10% of their efficiency.

E-PEP® TEST RESULTS: PULSTAR™ IMPROVEMENT (%) OVER SPARK PLUGS

– Vehicle: 2006 Mercury Marquis, 4.6L = Fuel Economy: 10.5 ; 0-60 MPH Times: 5.0 ; Relative Torque: 11.0
– Vehicle: 2006 ToyotaCorolla, 1.8L = Fuel Economy: 2.2 ; 0-60 MPH Times: 10.0 ; Relative Torque: 5.0
– Vehicle: 2004 Chevrolet Avalanche, 5.3L = Fuel Economy: 8.4 ; 0-60 MPH Times: 7.8 ; Relative Torque: 11.2
– Vehicle: 2004 Chevrolet Malibu, 2.2L = Fuel Economy: 4.1 ; 0-60 MPH Times: 5.4 ; Relative Torque: 3.8
– Vehicle: 1997 BMW 740i, 4.4L= Fuel Economy: 8.4 ; 0-60 MPH Times: 8.0 ; Relative Torque: 6.9
E-PEP is a performance evaluation procedure developed by Enerpulse, Inc. All rights are reserved.

Enerpulse Performance Evaluation Procedure (E-PEP)
The Enerpulse Performance Evaluation Procedure (E-PEP) is a test method for comparing the performance of pulse plugs against that of spark plugs and documenting the comparison in three performance categories: fuel economy (city and highway), 0-60 MPH times and relative torque. Subject vehicles are prepared utilizing factory recommended new spark plugs, spark gap settings, tire pressures and fuel. Fuel flow meters are installed into the vehicle’s fuel lines (incoming and return) and linked to a computer to register real-time fuel flow throughout the test to an accuracy of 1/42,000th of a gallon. An accelerometer is also installed to measure 0-60 times and relative torque.

Once prepared the vehicle is driven for 10 miles on a closed-loop course 3 times to simulate city driving and driven for 20 miles on a closed-loop course 3 times to simulate highway driving. The average miles per gallon for each condition is then added together and divided by 2 yielding a single average fuel economy number.

If an accelerometer is used the vehicle will then be accelerated 6 times from 0 to 60 MPH on a flat driving surface upwind and downwind. The high and low times, relative horsepower and relative torque readings are discarded and the average of the remaining 4 runs is recorded.

If a dynamometer is used, a series of tests reflecting 0-60, relative horsepower, and relative torque will be performed. The vehicle will perform 3 runs for each test and the average of the 3 will then be recorded.

When E-PEP is completed for the stock factory spark plug, Pulstar™ pulse plugs are installed and the vehicle is reconditioned with tire pressure and fuel. E-PEP is then run again with pulse plugs and the averages of all 4 conditions (city fuel economy, highway fuel economy, 0-60 times relative horsepower and relative torque) are calculated. The improvement percentage for Pulstar™ vs. the stock spark plug is then calculated.

A data disc is burned to archive the comparative data, which is also logged in the E-PEP Test Results register.

The performance of your vehicle may vary with the age and condition of your car, weather, and your driving habits. Remember that pulse plugs are an investment.

Enerpulse, Incorporated ; 2451 Alamo SE ; Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106 ; USA
TEL: 888.800.6700 ; (1-505-842-5201 for International calls) ; FAX: 505.842.6592 ; info@enerpulse.com

## 1Spark TM, price per unit = USD 100 http://www.motorspark.com

1Spark™ – the first power booster, fuel saver and environment friendly invention in Asia. Industry insiders predict that the 1Spark™ device will have as profound an impact on everyday life as did the automotive industry. It is THE TECHNOLOGY for existing and near future markets. Now this technology is reaching a critical stage in which new designs are rapidly emerging from research laboratories.

Fuel saving in vehicles is now an issue commonly discussed by customers, since the increase in the price of fuel. Therefore, this has encouraged many companies and scientists to produce a product that can fulfill this demand.

Two current ways of fuel saving in vehicles are :
– By giving more air into the combustion chamber, and – By clamping a powerful magnet at the fuel line before the combustion chamber.

However, the most effective way is by increasing the spark ignition fire.

By installing the product into the engine’s system, the power can be increased and fuel can be saved. This can be a possibility because the combustion of the engine, which is the combination air, fuel and spark, will become more perfect and balanced, resulting in the emission of exhaust gas with low Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NOx.).

The Fédération Internationale des Sociétés d’Ingénieurs des Techniques de l’Automobile (FISITA) represents over 169,000 engineers in 35 countries around the world. Its mission is to help create efficient, affordable, safe and sustainable automotive transportation. It states that there are a number of initiatives that are utilized by the automotive industry to reduce fuel consumption and vehicle emissions such as :
– Improved and advanced engine and transmission technology
– Reduced friction of operating components
– Lower rolling resistance tires
– Increased use of lightweight materials
– Improved aerodynamics and reduced vehicle mass
– In this case, 1Spark™ meets the first and second initiatives. This product uses revolutionary technology that allows engines to gain more power and torque by burning fuel completely and efficiently. It will control carbon monoxide emission in spark ignition engines using the electronic converter.

Advances in automobile technology produce better engines, which use higher octane, leaner fuel/air mixture, high compression ratio and higher engine RPM. Therefore, to get maximum performance, a fast duration and powerful spark is the no. 1 requirement to fire these modern engines.

1Spark™, the inductive ignition coil rise and saturation time are positively minimized, assuring faster duration but higher intensity sparks. The 1Spark™ revolutionary circuitry provides added storage energy to optimize any inductive ignition coil output performance by up to 50%!

1Spark™ produces faster respond, highly intensified, powerful sparks that ignite every fuel/air mixture quicker and completely, thus increasing engine efficiency, horsepower and torque whereas fuel consumption and hazardous emissions are decreased.

1Spark™ increases engine power by generating powerful and optimized spark duration for more complete burning of fuel. An engine’s efficiency is improved without consumption of any additional fuel for better combustion, reduced carbon built-up and cleaner and longer lasting engines.

1Spark™’s revolutionary circuitry optimizes the rise and saturation time of the inductive coils with added storage energy to provide the perfect solution – “Intelligent Spark”, thus allowing engines to increase POWER without extensive mechanical modification, minimize fuel wastages and hazardous emissions by simply burning fuel efficiently and prolonging the catalytic converter’s life span.

In short, by using 1Spark™ there will be : – Increased horsepower & torque – Better fuel mileage- Easier engine starting- Quicker acceleration- Higher top speed- Smoother running- Less carbon built-up- Less pollution

The overall performance of engines installed with 1Spark™ shows tremendous results in comparison with engines without 1Spark™. 1Spark™ can produce an engine with fuel savings of 5 – 21% and increased power output of 3-67%. The test was adopted from GUNT CT 150 & CT 159. The Gases Value Analysis, which uses the Muller Bern-Gas Analyzer, showed that emission of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide reduced from 3 – 10% while emission of Hydro Carbon reduced by 40-60%. These highlight the fact that 1Spark™ is an environment friendly technology. The analysis, which uses both instruments, was conducted using German automotive technology.

Technical Info – The Ignition System : Most ignition system comprise of an inductive coil and a points inductive or electronically trigger module. The coil is charged up and triggered to induce a secondary step-up higher voltage. When the ionization point is reached, the inducted electrical energy jumps the spark plug gap – creating a spark. Provided the spark intensity is powerful enough, the fuel/air mixture in the combustion chamber will ignite. The initial spark that starts the fuel ignition affects the rate of burning. The faster the process of burning the fuel the more powerful the engine becomes. Power equals Work divided by Time (P = W/t). A good analogy would be if we were to burn a tank full of petrol over say a period of 60 seconds or blow it up in a second! The total energy released remains the same, but the latter will be much more powerful. Slow combustion rate in engines causes incomplete burning resulting in loss of power, excess carbon built-up, also emission of toxic gases clogging the electronic converter and causes pollution to the environment.

1Spark™’s revolutionary circuitry optimizes the rise and saturation time of inductive ignition coil with added storage energy to provide the perfect solution – “Intelligent Spark”, allowing engines to increase power without extensive mechanical modification, wastage or harmful emission by simply burning fuel efficiently!

3 easy steps installation: 1- RED connect to ignition supply (+) – 2- BLUE connect to ignition coil assembly – 3- BLACK connect to ground (chassis) or battery negative terminal (-):

Remember: The Red wire connects to the Battery Supply (Show this Diagram to the Workshop, if you cannot figure out the Installation).

Warranty :This product is for petrol engines only and works for both electronic and points-inductive as well as multiple-coil ignition systems. Usage of this device will NOT affect your car’s ECU or electrical system under any circumstances.

## Some pictures related to Spark Plugs: