OTHER WATER DISSOCIATION SYSTEMS :
## 1784, Antoine LAVOISIER, France, discovered the Hydrogen and Oxygen, in the Splitting of water.
– First apparatus used by Lavoisier during his experiments on the water dissociation: in French: http://www.physique.usherbrooke.ca/senechal/HS/figs3/Lavoisier.html
– In English from : http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/Lavoisier.html
Antoine Lavoisier 1743 – 1794 , Born to Wealth.Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born August 26, 1743, the son of a wealthy Paris family At age 21 began to fulfill his own dream – to study mathematics and science.He studied astronomy, botany and geology under eminent scientists of the time.His work with geology and his winning essay on the best means of lighting the streets of a large city at night gained him an elected membership at the age of 25 into France’s prestigious Academy of Sciences.
In 1771, Lavoisier married 13-year old Marie-Anne Pierette Paulze, With time, she proved to be a scientific colleague to her husband by learning English so she could translate the writings of Priestley and others and by developing skills in art and engraving including all of the drawings in his book, “Traité élémentaire de chimie”
Over the 20 year period 1770 – 1790, the science of chemistry experienced a revolution so fundamental and so complete that there has been nothing like it since.The architect of the revolution was one man – Antoine Lavoisier .
Water.Proof of the validity of Lavoisier’s Oxygen Theory came when Lavoisierdecomposed water into two gases, which he named hydrogen and oxygen, and then reformed them into water as had been previously done by Priestley (1781) and then quantitatively by Cavendish.
Guillotined! Despite all of the contributions to science and France made by Lavoisier in his 51-year life, it was his connection with the Ferme Générale that the revolution zealots noted.In November 1793, all 32 former members of the Ferme Générale were arrested and imprisoned.After a trial by jury, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, along with his father-in-law and, were found guilty of conspiracy against the people of France.He was guillotined on May 8, 1794.
Lasting accomplishments. : father of modern chemistry – the concept of the chemical element metric system (replaced hundreds of archaic systems in use throughout France) other accomplishments are dwarfed by Lavoisier’s oxygen theory which has changed the course of chemistry forever, but it need be mentioned that Lavoisier is also credited with other accomplishments, including the invention of plaster of Paris in 1768.
– The discovery of the composition of Water. http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/webprojects2001/hossain/water.htm
Lavoisier had now established the fact that oxygen was a gas present in normal air and that it was responsible for the effects of combustion on metals, sulphur, phosphorus and many other substances.
– Combustion Analysis. http://www.chem.yale.edu/~chem125/125/history/Analysis/Liebiganal.html
For over 150 years, from the time of Lavoisier (1780s) until World War II, combustion analysis was the primary tool for figuring out what one was dealing with in organic chemistry.
– Lavoisier on Elements and Oxidation. http://classes.yale.edu/CHEM125A/125/history99/2Pre1800/Lavoisier/Nomenclature/Lavoisier_on_Elements.htm
– ORIGINS OF MODERNITY, alchemy & chemistry. http://www.library.usyd.edu.au/libraries/rare/modernity/lavoisier.html
– Elements and Atoms: Chapter 6, Water is not an element: Lavoisier. http://web.lemoyne.edu/~giunta/EA/LAVEAUann.HTML
– Other interresting links:
## On the Hydrogen gas: http://www.ac-orleans-tours.fr/lettres/coin_eleve/etymon/phys/hydroplus.html
The atom of Hydrogen (symbol: H, atomic number:1) is the simplest of all the atoms. It is constituted of only one proton (positive particle) around which turns an electron :
Hydrogen represent 90% of all the atoms in the Univers (the rest is composed of 9% of Helium and 1% of other atoms ). All the other atoms have been created during nuclear fusion reactions inside the stars and have been dispersed during their explosions (supernova)
The hydrogen gas is constituted of molecules of di-hydrogen, H2, two hydrogen atoms joint together.
The combustion of hydrogen in the di-oxygen creates water, like in the famous experiment of the French chemist Lavoisier (considered as the inventor of the modern chemistry), in 1783.
Lavoisier showed that we could dissociate the water in di-hydrogen and di-oxygen, and then re-combined this two elements to give water, proving that the water wasnt a simple corps, but a composed corps. The di-hydrogen is the lighter of all the gases.
(to link to the article above use: #HGN )
## Hydrogen Gas “Town Gas” Once Lit up America in the 1800’s and early 1900’s , http://www.hydrogenappliances.com/Hydrogendata.html
In towns and cities all across America, lamplighters once lit gas street lights at dusk. Inside middle class homes, gas lamps provided light while gas heaters provided warmth. The gas that fueled the lights and furnaces of an earlier America was not the natural gas of today, but a hydrogen-rich mixture called “town gas.”
Town gas was manufactured from coal and mainly consisted of raw hydrogen, some methane and small amounts of CO2 and CO. (Town gas or hydrogen gas is still used extensively in some parts of the world, such as China and other Asian countries).
Once vast natural gas fields were discovered, long-distance pipelines got laid linking the producing states of the Southwest and Gulf to the consumer states in the Northeast and Midwest. Utility companies stopped manufacturing town gas and switched to natural gas. Today, more than 1.2 million miles of natural gas pipeline criss-cross.
Unknown to most people today there are over 700 miles of hydrogen pipeline in the U.S., Germany and England right now! This is small compared to natural gas systems, but it is important to note that there are hydrogen pipelines in operation today that deliver gas to the user without incident. From the town gas experience of the past, to the hydrogen gas experience of today, a solid foundation of knowledge has been established on how to handle hydrogen safely.
– Hydrogen Is A Fuel
Hydrogen, in its liquid form, has been used as a fuel in space vehicles for years. Hydrogen has a high combustion energy per pound relative to any other fuel, meaning hydrogen is more efficient on a weight basis than fuels currently used in air or ground transportation. This weight factor makes hydrogen an attractive fuel.
Hydrogen is both flammable and buoyant. It is flammable over a wider range of concentrations than either gasoline or natural gas but due to its buoyancy, it dissipates more rapidly than either of these fuels in a spill. Hydrogen gas, like other gases used today, should be used in areas that can be ventilated.
Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, flammable and nontoxic gas at atmospheric temperatures and pressures. It is the lightest gas known, being only some seven one hundredths as heavy as air. Hydrogen is present in the atmosphere, occurring in concentrations of only about 0.01 per cent by volume at lower altitudes.
Hydrogen burns in air with a pale blue/green, almost invisible flame. Its ignition temperature will not vary greatly from 1050 F in mixtures with either air or oxygen at atmospheric pressure. Its flammable limits in dry air at atmospheric pressure are 4.1 to 74.32 per cent hydrogen by volume. In dry oxygen at atmospheric pressure, the flammable limits are 4.7 to 93.9 per cent hydrogen by volume. Its flammable limits in air or oxygen vary some what with initial pressure, temperature and water vapor content.
When cooled to its boiling point of – 423 F. hydrogen becomes a transparent and odorless liquid only one-fourteenth as heavy as water. All gases except helium become solids at the temperature of liquid hydrogen.
The hydrogen molecule exists in two forms: ortho and para, named according to their types of nuclear spin. (Ortho-hydrogen molecules have a parallel spin; para-hydrogen molecules, an anti-parallel spin.) There is no difference in the chemical properties of these forms, but there is a difference in physical properties. Para-hydrogen is the form preferred for rocket fuels. Hydrogen consists of about three parts ortho and one part para as a gas at room temperature. The equilibrium concentration of para increases with decreasing temperature until, as a liquid, the para concentration is nearly 100 per cent. If hydrogen should be cooled and liquefied rapidly, the relative three-to-one concentration of ortho to para would not immediately change. Conversion to the para form takes place at a relatively slow rate and is accompanied by the release of heat. For each pound of rapidly cooled liquid hydrogen that changes to the para form, enough heat is liberated to vaporize 1.5 lb of liquid hydrogen. However, if a catalyst is used in the liquefaction cycle, para-hydrogen can be produced directly without loss from self-generated heat.
… Hydrogen diffuses rapidly through porous materials and through some metals at red heat. It may leak out of a system which is gas tight for air or other common gases at equivalent pressures.
In its chemical properties, hydrogen is fundamentally a reducing agent and is frequently applied as such in organic chemical technology.
… A string of 43 million hydrogen atoms would be one centimeter long. Average velocity in air at 20 °C: Hydrogen — 39 mph, Oxygen — 10 mph (This is good a good quality as only minor ventilation can quickly dissipate potentially explosive H2 leaks)
… A gram of hydrogen gas occupies about 11 liters (2.9 gallons) of space at atmospheric pressure
Hydrogen is an important commercial chemical. It is prepared industrially by two processes: the “water gas reaction” using coke and water (equation 1), and the steam reforming process using natural gas and water (equation 2). Both reactions require high temperatures.
C(s) + H2O(g) CO(g) + H2(g) (1)and CH4(g) + H2O(g) CO(g) + 3 H2(g) (2)
– How much water is used to make Hydrogen?
“If turned one gallon of water back into oxygen and hydrogen gases it could fill up your entire home”
Electrolysis does not require significant amounts of water.The hydrogen extracted from a gallon of water using ahydrogen generator could drive a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle as far as gasoline vehicles travel today on a gallon of gasoline.
– GAS VOLUME – Water broken down in elements.
One gram molecular weight of any gas occupies about 21 L at standard temp and pressure. O2 = 32 grams per 21 L ; H2 = 2 grams per 21 L ;I L of H20 has about 55.55 moles of water ; 1 cubic foot of water is 28.32 L ; 28.32 X 55.55 =2128.9 moles which brakes down to 2128.9 moles of hydrogen X 21L = 44704 L H2 plus 22352 L O2. Total 44704 + 22352 = 67057 L or 2367 cubic feet of gases.
(to link to the article above use: #H2GA )
“Aluminum is not expensive because it is rare. It is actually one of the most abundant metals on the surface of the earth (#9) Aluminum is expensive because of the great amounts of electrical power used to refine it”
ALUMINUM DATA – (Something to think about??????)
1 gram of Al = 0.0370 moles ; Each mole Al yields 3 moles of electrons ; 0.0370 moles x 3 x 96500 C/mole = 10700 Coulombs
An Amp is a Coulomb per second, so one Amp flow would last 10700s ; 10700 amp-s / 3600 s/hr =~ 3 Amp-Hours per gram of aluminum.
At 14g per soda can, that comes to about 42 Amp-Hrs per can!!! At 2 volts, that’s about 300 kJ per can!
So a 20 lb. slab of aluminum has enough energy to power an electric car for over 500 miles.
Aluminum is one of the most abundant metals on the surface of the earth. Aluminum is not expensive because it is rare. It is expensive because its takes so much electrical power to deoxidize it.
All this electrical power is now caught in a solid form as Aluminum metal. (Aluminum is a powerful battery). When aluminum is dissolved most of the electrical power that was used to create it can be easily recaptured. The next time you pick up a roll of aluminum foil you will realize that you are actually holding a lot of potential horse power in the palm of your hands.
Aluminum is produced by corporations that buy electricity at well under a penny per KWH making aluminum the largest untapped source of potential cheap power. (At least for the short run, the Aluminum energy frenzy will drive the price of aluminum up as all of the old aluminum reserves are stripped of their electric energy potential while being dissolved away in electrolytic cells thus turning it back into Bauxite)
When you buy aluminum you are mainly paying for the electricity that made it.Electricity that was bought at bottom of the barrel wholesale pricing.
(to link to the article above use: #ALUBAT )
## List of patents concerning the HYDROGEN GAS, from http://www.redrok.com/neat.htm
– USP 4391793 – 83Hydrogen – Boese – Plant for thermochemical water dissociation by solar energy – (Magnetic ion separation)
– USP 4342738 – 82 – Hydrogen – Burgund – Hydrogen generation as fuel by use of solar ultraviolet light process – (Sunlight is separated into its infrared portion and its ultraviolet light portion.)
– USP 4588577 – 86 – Hydrogen – Cardinal – Method for generating hydrogen
(Generation of hydrogen gas from hot water by means of a metallic catalyst such as nickel powder and a chelating agent such as EDTA)
– USP 4071608 – 78 – Hydrogen – Diggs – Dissociation of water into hydrogen and oxygen using solar energy
(Hydrogen and oxygen are separated from each other by centrifugal forces.) Centrifugation
– USP 4310503 – 82 – Hydrogen – Erickson – Hydrogen production by multistaged intermediate oxidation-reduction
(Steam is reformed to hydrogen in two or more successive stages by chemical reaction with intermediates, at least one of which is selected from tin, indium, germanium, molybdenum or WO2.)
– USP 4053576 – 77 – Hydrogen – Fletcher – System for obtaining hydrogen and oxygen from water using solar energy
(Separation through diffusion University of Minnesota) Diffusion
– USP 4332775 – 82 – Hydrogen – Genequand – Gross – Hydrogen generator utilizing solar energy to dissociate water
(Separation through diffusion.) Diffusion
– USP 4476105 – 84 – Hydrogen – Greenbaum – Process for photosynthetically splitting water
(Photolytic reactor which contains a water-suspension of a photoactive material containing a hydrogen-liberating catalyst.)
– USP 3980053 – 76 – Hydrogen – Horvath – Fuel supply apparatus for internal combustion engines
– USP 4490349 – 84 – Hydrogen – Horvath – Hydrogen production
(One of chamber walls is formed of a reactant such as iron which reacts exothermally with the superheated steam to liberate free hydrogen and to produce an oxidized compound such as ferric oxide. The other chamber wall is formed as a thin diffusion membrane permeable to hydrogen but relatively impermeable to steam and oxygen and hydrogen is extracted from the chamber by diffusion.)
– USP 5658448 – 97 – Hydrogen – Lasich – Production of hydrogen from solar radiation at high efficiency
(Solid oxide electrolysis.)
– USP 5973825 – 99 – Hydrogen – Lasich – Production of hydrogen from solar radiation at high efficiency
(Solid oxide electrolysis.)
– USP 5589599 – 96 – Hydrogen – McMullen – Pyrolytic conversion of organic feedstock and waste
– USP 4826581 – 89 – Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Controlled process for the production of thermal energy from gases and apparatus useful therefore
(Ya, the wacco run a car on water guy)
– USP 4613779 – 86Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Electrical pulse generator
– USP 4613304 – 86Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Gas electrical hydrogen generator
– USP 4798661 – 89Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Gas generator voltage control circuit
– USP 4421474 – 83Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Hydrogen gas burner
– USP 4389981 – 83Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Hydrogen gas injector system for internal combustion engine
– USP 4936961 – 90Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Method for the production of a fuel gas
– USP 5149407 – 92Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Process and apparatus for the production of fuel gas and the enhanced release of thermal energy from such gas
– USP 4465455 – 84Hydrogen – Meyer; Stanley A. – Start-up/shut-down for a hydrogen gas burner
– USP 6024935 – 00 – Hydrogen – Mills-Good-Phillips-Popov – Lower-energy hydrogen methods and structures
(An example of a patent being granted to “crank” science )
– USP 4233127 – 80 – Hydrogen – Monahan – Process and apparatus for generating hydrogen and oxygen using solar energy
– USP 4011149 – 77 – Hydrogen – Nozik – Photoelectrolysis of water by solar radiation
(thin film semiconductor.)
– USP 4405594 – 83 – Hydrogen – Pyle; Walter – R-Photo separatory nozzle
(H-ION Solar) Separatory Nozzle
– USP 4019868 – 77 – Hydrogen – Sebacher-Sabol – Solar hydrogen generator
(Separation through diffusion.)
– USP 4595568 – 86 – Hydrogen – Van Damme-Fripiat-Nijs-Marceau-Francois – Photosensitive cell for the decomposition of water
– USP 4696809 – 87 – Hydrogen – Vialaron-Olalde-Gauthier – Process and apparatus for thermolytically dissociating water
(Rapid quenching of the gasses with cold water in the reaction cell.) Thermolysys of water
– USP 5510201 – 96 – Hydrogen – Werth – Method of operating a fuel cell wherein hydrogen is generated by providing iron in situ
– USP 3844262 – 74 – Hydrogen Oxygen – Dieges; Paul Bertrand – Vaporization of Exhaust Products in Hydrogen-oxygen Engine
– USP 4880443 – 89 – Hydrogen Oxygen – Miller-Theis – Molecular sieve oxygen concentrator with secondary oxygen purifier
(Separation through diffusion.)
– USP 5614460 – 97 – Hydrogen Storage – Schwarz-Putyera-Bandosz-Jagiello – Microporous carbons for fuel gas storage
(to link to the article above use: #ALB )
# – Browns Gas Patents, http://www.brownsgas.com/page/page/3353676.htm
– USP 6,443,725, Kim September 3, 2002, Apparatus for generating energy using cyclic combustion of brown gas
References Cited in this patent:
– USP 558176 Apr., 1896 Huber 126/92.
– USP 951060 Mar., 1910 Vanden Driessche 126/85.
– USP 978127 Dec., 1910 Brock.
– USP 1053695 Feb., 1913 Ash.
– USP 1218206 Mar., 1917 Panasevich 126/85.
– USP 1362789 Dec., 1920 Hamilton 126/92.
– USP 1414360 May., 1922 Hicks 122/155.
– USP 1494499 May., 1924 O’Dowd 126/92.
– USP 1502200 Jul., 1924 Howlett et al. 126/92.
– USP 1784927 Dec., 1930 Coon 431/170.
– USP 1970529 Aug., 1934 Walton 431/170.
– USP 1978517 Oct., 1934 Wetherbee 431/170.
– USP 2093239 Sep., 1937 Furlong 431/170.
– USP 2098629 Nov., 1937 Knowlton.
– USP 3262872 Jul., 1966 Rhodes et al.
– USP 4081656 Mar., 1978 Brown 431/11.
– USP 4465455 Aug., 1984 Meyer 431/78.
– USP 4828481 May., 1989 Weil et al. 431/7.
– USP 5244558 Sep., 1993 Chiang 204/241.
– USP 5279260 Jan., 1994 Munady.
Foreign Patent Documents :
– 3838142 May., 1990 DE 431/2.
– 0101761 Mar., 1984 EP 431/2.
– 2000-329358 Nov., 2000 JP 126/91.
– 200174216 Mar., 2001 JP.
– WO-92/03686 Mar., 1992 WO 431/2.
(to link to the article above use: #H2P1 )
## 1982, Francois CORNISH (UK), European patent 0055134A1, 1982, US Patent No. 4,702,894, 1987, Aluminium + water electrolysis. http://members.tripod.com/~anon99/water_engine/index2.html
Water reacted cleverly with aluminium, producing Hydrogen and Aluminium Oxide. Hydrogen is sent tothe carburetor. A 900 kg car runs 600km on 20 liters of water and 1 kg of aluminium. Clean energy apart from the process of refining Bauxite into aluminium. The only exhaust product of a hydrogen engine is water!
Patent abstracts : The present invention is based on the desire of the inventor to be able to provide hydrogen on demand from materials which are in themselves safe to handle hydrogen is formed by creating an underwater electrical discharge between two electrodes at least one of which is made of a metal as defined above the metal is aluminium which has the advantage that it is in relatively abundant supply, relatively cheap, is formed with a protective oxide layer on its exposed surfaces and reacts with water at a relatively low temperature. Aluminium wire fed against a rotating aluminium drum has been found to give excellent results to provide hydrogen
A convenient way of securing the high voltage required is to employ the conventional distributor and coil arrangement which provides the sparking for an internal combustion engine. Two coils in parallel fed from a common distributor has been found to give excellent results
In this case hydrogen is fed to a small buffer store and as the pressure in the store exceeds a predetermined level, the electrodes are separated so that hydrogen generation is interrupted. As the pressure drops to a certain level the electrodes are again fed towards one another the following reaction taking place.2Al + 3H2O —> Al2O3 + 3H2
Tested successfully by BMW in 1981 : BMW AG, References: 3895-5538
… Dear Mr. Cornish,
In reply to your telex of 17th October, our findings to date are as follows:
The unit as present assembled in a 2000cc car produced sufficient gas to power the engine continuously.The aluminium consumption averaged out at 180 cm per minute over a 70 minute test run.With the capacitor (as per your specification) connected up, we were able to work in our 14v environment.The water temperature remained low, and even without the radiation system was found to be well between your limits. No acid was found on analysis after the test run.
We however feel that one possible problem area may be the disposal of the oxide deposit. Could you please let us know what your findings have been on this side.
Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft, Service Division , I.V. Henseler , V. Krause.
(to link to the article above use: #CORNI )
# in French http://users.skynet.be/fa272699/Energie/Alu-eau/index.htm
Replica by french Patrick Guidi, Sep. 2006, on forum ‘Le moteur a eau’ http://essenceciel.tk.free.fr/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=358
(to link to the article above use: #CORNEW )
## 2006, Steve Ryan, Bios Fuel, New Zealand, THE FIRST PUBLICIZED WATER-MOTORBIKE, http://www.biosmeanslife.com/index.html
The Fuel of the Future is here.
Through years of committed research and development Bios Fuel founder Steve Ryan has developed an unprecedented water-based fuel. The Bios Fuel team is focused on ensuring that an Hydrogen Economy is the start of the next industrial and commercial revolution thus providing a solution to the number one problem of our world – our environment and the damage that existing fuel sources are causing.
Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen doesn’t occur naturally as a gas on the Earth – it is always combined with other elements, water, for example.
75% of the worlds surface is water. Unlike renewable energy sources like solar or wind power, water is not variable and therefore it is totally reliable, it does not suffer the problems of intermittency.
Being able to create hydrogen fuel until now has been one of mans greatest challenges and billions of dollars has been invested, everyone knows this is the direction that we must move in. However, to produce hydrogen as a fuel has been marred with contradiction as in order to create clean fuel you create harmful byproducts into the atmosphere, the worst being CO2.
By using Bios Fuel researched production methods there is a hydrogen based fuel which addresses both energy security and also will not offset global climate changes and air quality.
Bios Fuel is involved in bringing about the eventual goal of free energy to the population of this planet we call Earth through Research & Development.
Bios Fuel is a Registered Trade mark of Bios Societe Corporation Limited (A Private Registered Company, In Wellington, New Zealand)
(to link to the article above use: #BF1 )
Just when you think it is not true a few more guys make a water powered car and now motorcycle! The future is here! Think different. Imagine no gasoline, no gas bills, just plain water.
Trust the Kiwi’s from down under to show the rest of the world the reality.
New Zealanders Water Motorcycle
and New Zealanders Water Car
# Download the video of the NZ TV3 reportage that show the MOTORBIKE using WATER ONLY, and the journalist’s investigation following.
Also the video of a CAR using WATER ONLY, from TV1 New Zealand, http://www.waterpoweredcar.com/nz/OneNews_NZ_TV1_03-08_03.wmv
# Details of the video about the first WATERMOTO : from http://email@example.com/msg00042.html
The site itself provides very little useful technical information, but it does refer to an October 13th “60 Minutes ” television documentary, shown recently in New Zealand.
The documentary is considerably more informative.
In it, the inventor frequently emphasizes that his invention is ” . . . a water based fuel ” (rather than the conventional electrolysis inferred on the web site). He also talks of the “entrainment” of hydrogen in the water.
In brief, the inventor is shown pouring a small quantity (about two or three hundred ml) of ordinary tap water into a container about the size of a standard car battery. There appeared to be two wires coming from two opposite faces of the container. The container’s other faces were about half an inch thick, with some circular objects at their tops, and they were orange in colour. They also clearly have the words “HDD Cooler” printed on the edges (number 8 wire?). The interviewer confirmed that the device did not contain batteries and it was not plugged into a power source of any sort.
The inventor then connected the two wires together and it was left untouched for something like forty minutes. While the interviewer was allowed to observe the process in the container, the inventor did not permit it to be filmed.. The water was then poured out of the container into a glass beaker, and a sample of it given to the interviewer for analysis. The rest was poured into a small tank (about the size of a small thermos) mounted on a motor bike, where the petrol tank would normally be. The original tank had been removed, making the entire top engine structure and the fueling procedure clear .
The bike was then started and filmed being ridden up to 50 mph on the highway, and at lesser speed around a commercial courtyard. According to the inventor, the carburettor had been only slightly modified.
Water will burn under the right conditions, and with the right “catalyst”. This invention may or may not use similar techniques. Or it may be a new method of conditioning water that somehow “entrains” additional hydrogen ?
Quote of the Moment
I refuse to recognize that there are impossibilities. I cannot discover that any one knows enough about anything on this earth definitely to say what is and what is not possible.
The right kind of experience, the right kind of technical training, ought to enlarge the mind and reduce the number of impossibilities.
It unfortunately does nothing of the kind. Most technical training and the average of that which we call experience, provide a record of previous failures and, instead of these failures being taken for what they are worth, they are taken as absolute bars to progress.
If some man, calling himself an authority, says that this or that cannot be done, then a hoard of unthinking followers start the chorus: “it can’t be done”
Henry Ford, My life and work, 1922
(to link to the article above use: #BF2 )
## Fuel from water becoming reality says Kiwi firm, By PAUL EASTON – The Dominion Post | Saturday, 13 October 2007 http://stuff.co.nz/4235846a13.html
POWERFUL STUFF: Bio Fuels founder Steve Ryan says hydrogen fuel can be released from water blended with waste oil, and plans to prove the abilities of the new fuel by driving 3000kms on it.
Imagine watering the garden, then turning the hose into your petrol tank and filling up the car.
It has been a holy grail for an age, a water-based fuel. Well, that technology may already be here, claims small Kiwi company Bios Fuel.
But scientists remain sceptical and say an engine running on water defies the laws of physics.
Bios Fuel began with a concept in 1996, as founder Steve Ryan was tinkering with an old motorbike engine in an Auckland garage.
He started to believe that burning the hydrogen contained in water in a combustion engine was not just science fiction.
In 2002 he left a finance career to focus on researching the concept.Two years ago Mr Ryan went public, running a 350cc motorbike on water for the 60 Minutes television show.
Now Bios Fuel is preparing to drive 3000 kilometres from Darwin to Adelaide on a blend of waste oil and water, as part of the Panasonic World Solar Challenge.
Mr Ryan says the water-based fuel allows hydrogen to be housed safely in water and released.It is blended with waste oil for lubrication and a bonding agent, but the power comes from the water.Waikato University senior engineering lecturer Mike Duke is deeply sceptical of the claims.
He says the problem is that the amount of energy needed to extract energy from water is greater than the energy produced.There was “a lot of pseudo science out there,” Dr Duke said. “They’re claiming something that I don’t buy, but if they can prove it to me, then I’ll buy them a beer.”
But Mr Ryan says the fuel runs via a normal combustion system – it’s the delivery system that is the key and must remain under wraps.The Solar Challenge will demonstrate the potential of alternative fuel technology to operate in an extreme environment, says company spokesman Cam Feast.
“It gives us the opportunity to show that recycling second- and third-generation waste is an option when emulsified with water.”A battered old 1989 Land Cruiser with 400,000 kilometres on the clock will be used for the challenge.The implications of water-based fuels are huge, he says.
“Water doesn’t have to be spring-fed, it can be waste water, from your shower or sink, rainwater from the gutter, or seawater.Diesel engines can be run on very high percentages of water and small amounts of waste oil for lubrication. It requires no electricity, no heat, and emissions consist mainly of water vapour.”So why isn’t this technology already on the shelf?
Mr Ryan says scepticism from the scientific community and the public remains the main barrier to water-fuel technology. He says there has been more support from the United States, and that is where Bio Fuels will focus its efforts. “New Zealand will still be the home base, but there’s a need to go where the market is.”
(to link to the article above use: #BF3 )
The function of the water engine is based on the fact that the rapid compression of air in a cylinder creates a temperature of 500°C.The means of using the said air to boil water and implode hydrogen created by electrolysis, is as follows:
a – A four cycled fossil fuel compression engine is converted to water by insertion of a steel gasket in the cylinder head.
b – The gasket is designed with built in electronic valves to hold compressed 500°C air and oxygen in the cylinder head chamber after the piston reaches top dead centre. Thus, the piston descends leaving a vacuous area above it, 90°C water is injected into the said vacuous area and vaporises. Simultaneously, hydrogen, produced by electrolysis as the engine functions, is similarly injected.
c – Next the electronic valve opens, releasing the 500°C air, expanding the vapour and imploding the hydrogen.
Briefly, the functions are as follows:
The workings of the Water Manipulation Motor are described in detail in the patent specifications which can be supplied on request.
# CYCLE 1 – AIR AND OXYGEN INTAKE : This image indicates the piston prior to cycle 2. Note: Inlet valve is still open.
AT THE FINISH OF CYCLE 2 The air is held in the chamber above the piston by an electronic valve.
# CYCLE 3 – POWER STROKE : Piston creates a vacuous area into which hydrogen & water are injected. Cycle 3 is a miniature Precisely Controlled Lightning. The Thermodynamics are university approved.
# CYCLE 4: The steam is then cooled and used again.
The inventor of the Water Manipulation Motor is seeking expressions of interest from any parties that may be interested in developing a commercial motor using this core intellectual property. The inventor clearly understands the lengthy timeframes and significant development work that will be needed to be undertaken to bring this technology to a stage that is ready to be commercialised. It is the inventors intention to license said IP to a capable party that is interested in developing this engine in exchange for a modest royalty payable on the sale of units of products embodying the technology. Any parties interested in participating as investors in the project would also be welcomed.
# Benefits of the ‘Water Manipulation Motor’ work?
– Fossil fuel engines are simple to convert. The converted engine can be used for both transport and electricity generating purposes world-wide;
– It does not use fossil fuels. It is pollution free and when used to replace all fossil fuelled engines, including coal burners, it could eventually eliminate the generation of most greenhouse gases;
– It does not create harmful waste products
The following intellectual property pertains to the Water Manipulation Motor: International Patent Application PCT/AU2005/000770 ; Australian Provisional Patent, application 2004902890
If you are interested in receiving more information or proceeding to a product presentation please make contact with the designated person whose details are listed below by phone, fax or email.
Contact: Mr. Dan Liszka ; Organisation: Alchemy Innovation Development Pty. Ltd, GPO Box 4837 Sydney NSW 2001 Australia ; Telephone: (61) 2 82336170 ; Facsimile: (61) 2 82573399 ; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
(to link to the article above use: #WAM )
## 2006, Hydrogen Power Inc., Hydrogen from Aluminium, http://www.hydrogenpowerinc.com/index.html
Hydrogen Power Inc. is a Seattle-based company licensed by the University of British Columbia to develop a proprietary method of producing hydrogen called Hydrogen Now. This patented process safely generates pure hydrogen using one of the most abundant and cost-effective natural resources on earth aluminum. Hydrogen Now combines aluminum, water and an environmentally-friendly catalyst to create a water split reaction greatly increasing the easy availability of hydrogen throughout the world.
Hydrogen Now will enable the world to achieve the environmental benefits of a hydrogen economy because Hydrogen Now overcomes the primary safety problems related to hydrogen storage and transportation.
– produces hydrogen on-site and on-demand
– uses inexpensive & abundant raw materials
– produces a ‘clean burn’ with no harmful emissions
– operates at safe pressures & temperatures
– requires no additional energy for the compression of the hydrogen (a costly and complicated requirement of other production methods.)
– requires no energy consumption for the creation of hydrogen (like natural gas steam reformation and electrolysis)
– does not require major changes to existing infrastructures (like filling stations) and can be easily adopted by internal combustion engines
Hydrogen Power Inc. patented electrolysis process for hydrogen production.
The Hydrogen Power Inc. (HPI) patented Hydrogen Now TM technology is based on a simple irreversible reaction of aluminum and water. The aluminum “splits” the water freeing the hydrogen and creating a benign byproduct of aluminum hydroxide (non-toxic, non-caustic, and recyclable). HPIs chemical systems control the hydrogen production through chemistry, allowing for the development of simple, safe, and reliable devices with limited balance of plant requirements. Hydrogen Now TM produces hydrogen free of impurities that can be used directly to power fuel cells or internal combustion engines.
(to link to the article above use: #HPP )
## December 28, 2006, Hydrogen Power, Inc Produces Hydrogen from Water and Aluminium Powder, http://thefraserdomain.typepad.com/energy/2006/12/hydrogen_power_.html
On December 26 the company announced that its common stock has begun trading on the Over the Counter Bulletin Board.
… The aluminum splits the water freeing the hydrogen and creating a benign byproduct of aluminum hydroxide (non-toxic, non-caustic, and recyclable).It produces hydrogen free of impurities that can be used directly to power fuel cells or internal combustion engines.
HPI is developing a hydrogen battery – a safe and convenient portable source of active and stand-by power. Early markets for this technology include power to mobile phones, pdas and laptop computers in remote locations where electricity is not readily available.
… HPIs AlumiSystem combines a module consisting of a fuel cell fully integrated with an AlumiCell generator that accepts Alumi- Fuel cartridges. HPI is developing the AlumiCell, a battery replacement technology developed to fully realize the potential of fuel cells as battery replacements.
… HPIs reactor and tank are more cost effective because pressures are less than 150psi.
… Given the ease of storage and distribution, as well as its customized production capability, HPI’s AlumiFuel and Hydrogen Now technology are intended to bypass infrastructure and cost barriers to commercial adoption. With the hydrogen-power conversion on the Ford Ranger complete, HPI’s next step will be to integrate the AlumiFuel powered reactor with the truck to provide an on-board, on-demand hydrogen supply.
(to link to the article above use: #HPP1 )
The visible part of the invention (the other part has been hidden in the flight box), on the top, is the tank that has a double function ; refilling of water and cooling. When running the tank is boiling from the hydrogen bubbles. Hydrogen is collected on the top of the tank and run a standard Genset.
Surprisingly the French government does not seem interested but other countries show some interest.
Fabien Lecler – 2, rue Le Val – 50220 Ducey (France), Tél/Fax : +33 126.96.36.199.46,http://www.Moteurahydrogene.com, E-mail : Contact-at-Moteurahydrogene.com
The FAQ, in French at http://188.8.131.52/moteurahydrogene/qr.htm
(to link to the article above use: #FL )
After on year trying to attract the attention of the french government, and foreign governments and industies without success, it’s time to revelate some details about the Hydrogen Motor without storage of Hydrogen (Hydrogen produced on-demand).
Since 10 years Fabien Lecler was interrested in the works of Nicola Tesla and his ‘Electric Car'(a Pierce-Arrow) , and it’s what brought him to discover (or re-discover) a system for electricity production. The advantage of this kind of generator is that it produces quasi-free electricity.
Tesla invented a free electricity generator, and it seems that this 2 systems are based on the same elements and principles, but we can’t be sure because Tesla didn’t let any indication on his system to confirm this.
… Mr. Leclerc was willing to protect his invention of a free-electricity generator through patenting, to be sure not to be spoiled or to see his invention stolen by somebody else; for this he needed also some funds, and that’s why he developped an altenative system for energy production, the Hydrogen Motor with On demand Production, expecting to get the interrest of some industrial to whom he could have talk about his free elecricity generator, later on.
So he postulated for a ‘patent demand’ for this Hydrogen Motor, that is coming to end, now, after one year; and like it can’t be followed, Mr. Leclerc decided to put the information in the public domain.
You can download the final ‘demand for patent’, number 0511737 (PDF 196 Ko) http://184.108.40.206/LaboratoireLecler/0511737_DemandeFinale.pdf
The motor uses a chemical reaction to run, so we can call it a Chemical Hydrogen Engine; in the tank of the prototype, water was mixed with Aluminium and Sodium Hydroxide, to produce pure Hydrogen that was the fuel to run the standard Gasoline Genset.
## About the Free-Electricy Generator from his invention, Fabien Lecler is thinking to ‘sell it to mankind’ through internet, calling for the donation from the public, to reach a certain amount, ‘the price of this solution for the poors of this world’, and then, he will give all details on the system for everybody to be abble to reproduce it.
End of translation.
# Personal Remark:
Off course everybody needs money to eat, and we can understand that Mr Fabien lecler wants some for his discovery … I just hope that the end of the story will be good for the poors, for those that have no fuel to cook, no fuel to heat their ‘house’ in the winter, …
So many inventors ‘GET IT’ since 100 years, but details never went in public, at list not enough details to make it reproduceable by anybody, and widely used today; the list is long, close to 200 inventors brought their invention with them to the next world (I’m preparing the compilation about the subject) … and we still WITHOUT IT …
My personal last words will just be : Please Fabien, don’t make it complicated or long or expensive, just give it; don’t wait, don’t be cupid, don’t give time to the bad guys to stop or trouble you; just don’t expect anything from something that can save so many lifes, and reduce so many suffering; please, just give it … for them, just for them, Les Misereux, ils en ont tant besoin (comme le disait si bien l’Abbe Pierre, paix a son ame). And they are so many, 3 billions, and millions more everyday … all over the world ; in france also, and in east europe, so many have no means to eat their room or to cook their food.
From Europe to America, and South-America, through Africa, Middle East, Russia, India, China, Vietnam, Indonesia, free energy will change the life of the people, for the better.
For me I will push to its production everywhere I can, I’ll give part of my life for that, to developp the use of the Generator Lecler (without C), all over our planet.
And if you believe in God, be sure that He will appreciate your great donation for the good.
# Fabien Lecler has been very active to push his Chemical Hydrogen Motor, for the good of Mankind, through letters to governments all around the world, without good responses, but he obtained that the subject be introduced in the “National French Assembly” (Chamber of Deputees); also without following from the french government till now … He get a bit of help from a few ex-ministers and senators, but it’s of course not enough, and his solution for a clean world has been, as usual, burried deep in the ground.
– Question to Government, published in the “Official Journal“, 12 December 2006, n° 112941, from Mr. Nicolas Dupont-Aignan,to the Minister of Industry, see text in french at http://220.127.116.11/LaboratoireLecler/question_ecrite.htm
– Question to Government, published in the “Official Journal“, 26 December 2006, n° 114767, from Mr. Lionnel Luca, to the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry,see text in french at http://18.104.22.168/LaboratoireLecler/question_ecrite2.htm
– See also article from “Ouest France” newspaper, 26 October 2006, at http://22.214.171.124/LaboratoireLecler/ouest-france.htm
(to link to the article above use: #FL1 )
## 2005, Amnon Yogev, The Car that Makes its Own Fuel, http://thefraserdomain.typepad.com/energy/hydrogen/index.html
A retired Israeli professor from the Weizmann Institute and one of two founders of Engineuity, has invented a car that produces its own hydrogen fuel from light metals, such as magnesium or aluminum, eliminating all of the infrastructure required for making, transporting and storing hydrogen.
The inventor claims that when the cars become commercial, they will cost about the same as conventional cars and will be emission free.
A coil of the fuel – aluminum or magnesium – is fed into a device called a Metal-Steam combustor that will separate hydrogen out of water that is heated to a very high temperature.The oxygen atoms will bond to the metal forming a metal oxide, freeing the hydrogen.The hydrogen and the steam, which forms when the pressure in the ‘fuel’ line is reduced below that in the combustor, are sent to the engine where they are used to generate power.
Explanation: The steam will be superheated in the engine and returned to the Metal-Steam combustor to provide the heat needed to generate more hydrogen.The waste metal oxide and remaining unoxidized metal would be removed from the combustor and collected for recycling at the fuel station where the coils of metal are purchased.
A drawback is that the amount of metal needed for fuel, to give the car the same range as a conventional car, weighs about three times as much as the gasoline it replaces.The engine should be a minor modification of ICE’s. They claim neither the purchase price or the running cost should be much different than conventional cars.Engineuity plans on developing a prototype in three years if they are able to raise enough money from investors.
I don’t believe its that simple.Does it really work?Can some of you bright young readers analyze the cycle and see if it can work?How do you start the car?Do you need a heater for the combustor and where do you get the energy to do that?
Can you produce some excess hydrogen and store it, that sounds expensive. How do you adjust the speed?Somehow you must dump some of the heat produced in the engine I guess or can you throttle the hydrogen and design the combustor to take the high pressure that might result.
Can that be combined with the engine cooling system?What is the response time of the system?You have a volume in the combustor that might have to be heated and cooled to provide response.What about the cost of the Metal-Steam combustor?It must operate at a pretty high pressure and the pressure vessel then adds weight to the car.
I guess there is no exhaust system which saves a bit. I would think the price of the “feed metal” would go up with the price of energy, so there is not a great saving there, if any.I have added some to the cycle description to clarify it, I hope I did it correctly.
IsraCast, The Car That Makes its Own Fuel http://www.isracast.com/tech_news/231005_tech.htm
(to link to the article above use: #AY )
## 2006, LMG Hydrogen/Gasoline cars, http://www.greencarcongress.com/2006/08/malaysian_auto_.html
Malaysian Auto Company Launches Chinese SUVs fueled by Hydrogen and Gasoline Mixture, 15 August 2006
LM Star Autoworld Sdn Bhd (LMG), Malaysias latest car manufacturer, has launched two SUVs (LMG Tourer and Trekker) fueled by a combination of hydrogen generated on-board and gasoline.
The vehicles, introduced by Malaysian Prime Minister Datuk Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi at the Johor Baharu Expo on Tuesday, use a proprietary on-board hydrogen generator-called the Hydroxene System-to reduce the consumption of gasoline by up to 50%, according to LMG.
The on-board hydrogen system, developed by Malaysian scientist Dr Halim Mohd Ali, reportedly produces hydrogen and oxygen from water without using electrolysis, then injects the resulting gas mixture into the fuel-air charge for the combustion engine, boosting combustion.
The 2.4-liter engine in the LMG Trekker, which weighs 2,386kg (5,260 lbs) produces 124 hp (92.5 kW) at 5,250 rpm and 190 Nm (140 lb-ft) of torque at 3,000 rpm.
Technical details on the Hydroxene system are scant. For coverage of the launch-including pictures-and discussion, see Paultan.Org http://paultan.org/archives/2006/08/15/lmg-tourer-with-hydroxene-technology
Theres also the SUV and pick-up truck manufacturer Dadi. Im sure many of you have seen Dadi showrooms around the city. LM Star Autoworld Sdn Bhd has assembly rights to Dadi SUVs and pick-up trucks, and a Bernama report says it plans to have an assembly plant in Kota Tinggi, Johor. LM Star Autoworlds assembly plant will have the capacity for 60,000 vehicles a year but will start with an output of 28,480 in the first year. 10,000 will be for the Malaysian market and the rest for export. Could the new vehicle being launched be an LM Star-built Dadi SUV or pick-up?
LM Star also has an agreement with BYD Auto of China to develop right hand drive versions of BYD cars and have them assembled here both for the local market and export.
– See also an article in The Star http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2006/8/16/nation/15153258&sec=nation
– and also http://webevents.bernama.com/cars/?type=read&id=214112
– Resources: Official website (Under Construction)LMG http://www.lmautoworld.com
– LMG Tourer and Trekker with Hydroxene technology :
The pick-up truck comes with 3 years or 120,000km warranty, whichever comes first. The brochures also states free service and free engine oil (Petronas) for the warranty period.
# Some comments found on internet :
– The clue we have here is: Nano technology # Waste aluminium and NaOH # 2 parts of water to replace 1 part of gasoline # 5 years life span for the Hydroxene System
– From formula(by allen Z): 2Al + 2NaOH + 6H20 => 2NaAl(OH)4 + 3H2
– if we get alumnium hydroxide then: When then heated to 1050°C, the aluminium hydroxide decomposes to alumina, giving off water vapor in the process: 2 Al(OH)3 ? Al2O3 + 3 H2O
– This formula looks more accurate. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naoh#Chemical_properties
2Al(s) + 6NaOH(aq) ? 3H2(g) + 2Na3AlO3(aq)
Molar mass of “H2” is 2.0159 g/mol # Molar mass of “Al” is 26.9815 g/mol # Molar mass of “NaOH” is 39.9971 g/mol # Molar mass of “Na3AlO3” is 143.9491 g/mol
53.963 + 239.9826 -> 6.0477 + 287.8982 # 53g Al produce 6g of H2 # 1kg Al will only* produce 113g of H2
– This reminds me of the reverse Al to AL2O3 fuel cell used by some electric car enthusiasts here in the Chicagoland area. It was an expediant way to move Pacific NW hydro power to the midwest to run a car. Rather than pitch their aluminum drink cans, they burned them in their electric car!
– “produces hydrogen and oxygen from water”. The process calls for water (H2O), Lye (NaOH), and aluminum (Al).
My initial formula did not take the O2 into account. There may be a few ways for this to work:
a) during a regenrative cycle, the 2NaAl(OH)4 reverts back into 2Al + 2NaOH + 2H2O + O2
b) the resulting material also has NaAlO2 from Al + NaOH + H2O => NaAlO2 + H2. Afterwards, perhaps some chemical process:
1) reverts the NaAlO2 + H2O back into Al + NaOH.
2) converts the NaAlO2 into Al + Na + O2 through thermal decomposition.
c) aluminum are in fact nanoparticles and behave like a catalyst, continuously creating H2 from the reaction. Thermal and/or electric energy may be needed to sustain such reaction by some secondary process for NaOH.
– Aluminium is not cheap, so those jokers called it waste Aluminium to make it sounds economical viable. Even waste Aluminium not cheap. Do you know that in the scrap yard, real waste Aluminium comes with paint, oil, resins and maybe other metals?
To add Aluminium, chemicals and energy into the mixture to get Hidrogen to power up engine is like going big round to avoid toll booth on the road, but end up spending more on petrol due to longer journey and traffic jams.
– ” As simple as it sounds, Dr Halim is quick to add that the technology is difficult to copy, as it has a secret recipe which very few people know about.
There are only 12 people in the world who know how hydroxene works and even then they only know 70% of the technology, he said, adding that the core aspects of the technology remained with him.”
– Now it is quite likely something like this: http://www.fuelcellsworks.com/Supppage5724.html
“M. Tareq Abu-Hamed, now at the University of Minnesota, and colleagues at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, have devised a scheme that gets round these problems. By reacting water with the element boron, their system produces hydrogen that can be burnt in an internal combustion engine or fed to a fuel cell to generate electricity. “The aim is to produce the hydrogen on-board at a rate matching the demand of the car engine,” says Abu-Hamed. “We want to use the boron to save transporting and storing the hydrogen.” The only by-product is boron oxide, which can be removed from the car, turned back into boron, and used again. What’s more, Abu-Hamed envisages doing this in a solar-powered plant that is completely emission-free. ”
– Or even this: http://ergosphere.blogspot.com/2005/06/zinc-miracle-metal.html which was from an article from GCC.
– In another source, Chinapress(in chinese) reported that they claimed this huge 2.4 tons pickup will do 28kmpl(68mpg) which will put Toyota Prius to shame.
– It may just be simpler and cheaper to put a high-pressure hydrogen tank on board and use it instead. Since a very small percentage of H2 is used in comparison to gasoline, the size of compressed H2 is not a problem, and refilling or exchanging the H2 tank can be done once a month at designated locations. If a small amount of H2 can boost gasoline fuel economy by 20-30% as claimed by many, then the current high cost of H2 is no big deal, and can more than pay for itself.
– “High compression nanotechnology” was mentioned. It could be the technique to produce the porous dopped-metal oxide as solid state electrolyte between the electrodes. Multiple stacked cells for volume efficiency. nano-powder of Pt or carbon nano tubes can be made into porous electrode for greater surface area.
– High temperature aid the rate of electrolysis, which is an endothermic process. Heat is a form of waste produced by the IC engine and can be easily scarvenged as suplimental energy to electricity.
– Actually, there is nothing wrong with onboard high-temp electrolysis for production of H2 with recycled exhaust heat, as long as you can manage to get 800-1000 degrees C in order for the process to be sufficiently efficient. The cost and complexity is the major problem. Current Solid Oxide Electrolytic cells has a big durability problem, and only would have only 1/10 th the durability of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.
# Some of you may remember a piece of news http://www.researchsea.com/html/article.php/aid/869/cid/2/research/cheap_and_safe_production_of_hydrogen_fuel_.html?PHPSESSID=d2711fb1fad2287e83541226ec781cff in July where a team of Universiti Sains Malaysia researches led by Dr Syamsul Rizal Abd Shukor came up with a way to produce hydrogen in a system compact enough to be fitted into a car. The system involved using waste aluminium metal and sodium hydroxide to separate water into its components – hydrogen and oxygen.
While Im not sure if the new Hydroxene system in LMGs new pick-ups and SUVs are based on the results of this USM research, it works very similiarly.
– Cheap and safe production of hydrogen fuel
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) researchers have invented a unique and novel system that can produce hydrogen inside a car using waste aluminium metal and sodium hydroxide.
Title of project: An Economical Route to the Production of Hydrogen Energy from Waste Materials: An Alternative Fuel for Vehicles
Researchers: Dr Syamsul Rizal Abd Shukor, Assoc. Prof. Abdul Latiff Ahmad, Dr. Lee Keat Teong, Kelly Yong Tau Len, Oh Pei Ching.
The soaring prices of crude petroleum in the international market has instigated the need for an alternative fuel to power our vehicles. Hydrogen has long been cited as one of the potential fuel to replace petroleum due to its environmental friendly nature as the combustion of hydrogen produces only water and energy without any pollutants. However, the expensive cost of hydrogen production and the safety of hydrogen storage in vehicle have deterred this route from being conceptualized.
Universiti Sains Malaysia researchers have invented a unique and novel system that can produce hydrogen inside a car using waste aluminium metal and sodium hydroxide. The hydrogen can be directly used as a source of fuel for combustion in the engine to power the vehicle. By controlling the amount of reactant used, they can control the quantity of hydrogen produced and thus eliminating the safety problem associated with hydrogen storage. Thus, in this invention, a novel and economical route for in-situ production and utlization of hydrogen in a car has been invented.
Dr Syamsul Rizal Abd Shukor
– Apparently, Hydroxene can be retrofitted into any car for about RM2k-3k (430-640 Euros).
So obviously this hydrogen synergy fuel system is an added-on accessory – as well as an extra bragging point – to help push these new Chinese vehicles.
– Its wonderful to read such diverse comments left in the wake of this Dadi Hydroxene launch. Hydrogen as a supplementary fuel has been around and growing since Dr. Yule Brown publish his results some 20 years ago. Its known as Brown Gas – after Dr. Brown who was very committed to start the ball rolling against fossil fuel polution. It has been refined by many people around the world (me included) & H2O to H & O conversion isnt a secret art, – its eficiency is. I get about 50 ~80% fuel savings on my own system and the unit is small enough to fit into most engine bays.
-Hydroxene is a worthy and cheaper alternative to electric-gasoline hybrid even if it has to draw power from hydrocarbon fuels to work. I am quite certain the costs of producing a Hydroxene car is much lower than a Prius
Most importantly, it saves you 50% in fuel costs. And water is free. Biofuels such as E15 or E85 arent.
Wonder if we can use pipe water or not since the pipe water got chlorine , ammonia residue and rust particle, all this will spoil the hydrogen converter unit.
# Source:The New Straits Times Press (Malaysia), Publication Date:08-March-2006 , from http://www.fuelcellsworks.com/Supppage4726.html
PREMIUM, regular and the ubiquitous diesel seem like plenty of options. However, it probably never occurred to the average Jane that each time she fills up her mid-sized sedan, she is in fact just filling up with yet another source of non-renewable hydrocarbon.
At the risk of sounding like a broken record, the tired cliché of trying to source for a 100 per cent clean, renewable alternative fuel might just as well be cold fusion ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_fusion ).
However, all that is about to change, not in 10 years, not in five. In fact, the solution is just right around the corner and has already been test-proven on Malaysian roads. Claimed to cut petrol consumption by half, the Hydrogen Fuel Technology (HFT), developed by HFT Sdn Bhd, works by supplementing the conventional fuel-air mixture in petrol and diesel engines with a combustible, yet renewable source of fuel – hydrogen.
HFT is expected to hit the market by this July, starting with the rollout of 5,000 units of 1.3-litre Proton Iswara being primarily used as cabs. Each HFT unit is expected to be sold for RM3,000 ( 600 Euros) and has a service life of five years.
In general, a HFT-powered vehicle would consume two parts of water to one part of petrol. Thus, for an average 50-litre fuel tank, HFT would need 100 litres of water.
Water consists of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen (H2O). The HFT system simply splits water back into hydrogen and oxygen.
HFT Sdn Bhds chairman Mohammad Isa Abdullah claims that the HFTs design is an intellectual property which has already being patented. But he would not disclose any other information on what makes it tick, other than the fact it is based on a high-compression nano technology.
Of course, it is no secret that extracting hydrogen and oxygen from water is simple Form Four chemistry involving a battery, two carbon rods, two test tubes, a beaker, common table salt and water in a process called electrolysis. In theory, it sounds about right, but in practice, it will take like forever to produce sufficient amounts of hydrogen to power a car.
So, there is something about HFT that sets it apart. But to the naked eye, the system simply consists of a canister no bigger than a large can of powdered milk that is tucked inside the engine bay – suitable for an engine no bigger than 1,600 cubic capacity; the bigger the engine, the bigger the canister.
However, the design of the water tank is left to the automotive manufacturer to incorporate into their cars.
According to Mohammad Isa, the water tank does not necessarily have to be big since water is easily available. A typical day drive of about 150 kilometres around Klang Valley should not require anything more than 10 litres of water.
Thus a 20-litre water tank is plenty and would only require topping up every three to four days of daily driving. A small inconvenience to halve the use of petrol.
However, the HFT system takes three minutes to start up, the first time it is initialised. Subsequently, the system produces hydrogen as and when the engine needs it, as it is already half-way being produced.
At the same time, the HFT system has an internal reservoir of hydrogen smaller than a cup. Thus, it does not pose as much danger as, say, a hydrogen-filled airship.
The oxygen by-product is released back into the atmosphere since Mohammad Isa claims that feeding pure oxygen into the combustion chamber would result in too much combustion.
Note that hydrogen does not have as much energy per litre compared to petrol. Thus, a reduction of three to five per cent in power should be expected with the HFT system.
It is negligible, but those who are obsessed with performance should just use petrol straight up. And fortunately, the system does allow for drivers to switch from hydrogen/petrol to purely petrol, should more power be needed for race day.
Currently, the HFT system runs on a 50/50 hydrogen/fuel mixture. The goal is to get it to a 70/30 ratio with an upcoming new system which would translate into a whole lot more fuel cost savings.
At RM0.96 cents (half of RM1.92 per litre of petrol), Mohammad Isa estimates that the HFT is cheaper than Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) at RM1.25 per litre or RM1.75 per 1.4 litre. And best of all, you do not have to queue up to top up your water tank!
(to link to the article above use: #LMG )
## Latest News about LMG story: From a local source, Dr Halim decided to find another partner to distribute his invention. He was expecting shares in the company, but LMG was offering only a retribution based on sales.
Imagine a car running 50% on water … people would start to think : Hey 50% can, why not 100% ?! So it would be the start of the end of the profits of the oil companies !
Another story that finish like a flop in the water, the power of the lobby won again. Fu…. bas…. this oil companies! We still have to work hard to take them the monopole of energies that enslave the people.
(to link to the article above use: #LMG2 )
## 2005, AEC, Alternate Energy Corporation, Canada, Energizing the Hydrogen Economy http://www.cleanwatts.com/
About Alternate Energy Corporation: AEC is energizing the hydrogen economy with its on-demand hydrogen production technology that provides small-scale electricity, bulk production of hydrogen and a saleable by-product. These systems have global opportunities in multiple market segments.
AECs proprietary discovery in process technology permits the generation of hydrogen from water through a green process at a competitive level to the fossil fuel kWh cost of energy. AEC believes its systems can have a revolutionary impact on the energy industry.
Products Hydrogen Technology
At the Company’s facilities in Burlington Ontario (Canada), and along with contracted, independent laboratories, AEC is refining its technology and preparing demonstrations of the hydrogen production unit. These Demonstration units will power an Internal Combustion Engine and Astris Energi’s model E8 2.4 kW Alkaline Fuel Cell for a number of potential commercial customers.
The AEC hydrogen production technology refines the production of hydrogen and resultant gaseous formation without the need for external energy input at time of production. AEC’s process involves a chemical reaction between a proprietary metal mix and the liquid solution. These metals are plentiful, stable in cost and produce effective, highly purified hydrogen utilizing a catalytic process.
… AEC further validated our proprietary process when its hydrogen successfully powered the Astris’ 1kw golf cart on September 16th, 2003 using hydrogen derived from water with no other energy input.
Technology AEC Hydrogen Technology
AEC owns a patent-pending formulation which separates hydrogen from water at low cost, requiring no electrical energy or external input, and without utilizing or producing any hazardous waste materials. AECs process involves chemical reactions between proprietary materials and the liquid solution. These materials are plentiful, stable in cost and produce effective highly purified hydrogen utilizing a catalytic process.
At the present time, as patents are pending and due to the risk of proprietary infringement, details of AEC’s hydrogen production process are limited to the following:
Upon immersion of AEC’s materials into the liquid solution, there is an immediate, steady production of gaseous components, including but not limited to, 99.99% pure hydrogen and oxygen. No source of external energy is introduced or required for such production. The process does not involve electrolysis, or the use of an external source of electrical power of any manner in the actual hydrogen generation process. Removal apparatus for the oxygen are not required for the purity levels to meet required standards for use in alkaline fuel cells and internal combustion engines. The output from the AEC process was certified by Maxxam Analytics, to be 99.9% pure hydrogen on October 7, 2003.
Any form of water, including tap, sea, fresh and distilled, can be used in the solution.
CONTACT: Suzanne Brydon – Investor Relations – Alternate Energy Corporation – (519) 620-2623 –
# AEC Unveils its First Hydrogen Production Demonstration Unit
Alternate Energy Corporation’s H2 1500-A1 demonstration unit produces hydrogen from water, on demand.Production arrangements are being made for shipment later in 2005 at a price projected to be comparable to fossil fuels.
Adapted by Pure Energy Systems News:
BURLINGTON, ONTARIO, CANADA — Alternate Energy Corporation (AEC) (OTCBB: ARGY) yesterday announced that its first alpha-stage unit, the H2 1500-A1, was recently demonstrated before two separate multinational engine companies in the U.S.
This demonstration was set up to review AEC’s small scale, on-demand Hydrogen Production technology and discuss business opportunities.These Demonstration units will power an internal combustion engine and Astris Energi’s model E8 2.4 kW Alkaline Fuel Cell for a number of potential commercial customers.
According to their website, “AEC owns a metallurgic formulation which separates hydrogen from water at low cost, requiring no electrical energy or external input, and without utilizing or producing any hazardous waste materials.
AEC’s process involves chemical reactions between a proprietary metal alloy mix and the liquid solution. These metals are plentiful, stable in cost and produce effective, highly purified hydrogen utilizing a catalytic process.”
Engineers who have reviewed the technology say that this system is capable of producing energy at a price competitive with the current fossil fuel kWh cost of energy.
These demonstration meetings are the beginning of a series of such meetings over the coming months, whereby AEC will be showcasing its hydrogen production technology to a long list of prospective commercial customers, potential licensees, select government and institutional contacts and other interested commercial parties.
An earlier prototype demonstration took place on May 8, 2005 with interested/involved parties at AEC’s contracted laboratory in Downsview, Ontario, Canada.Now, this H2 1500-A1, alpha stage unit is designed for portable, on-site demonstrations.
AEC says their company is on an accelerated product development timetable to take advantage of several opportunities with targeted organizations.
Alternate Energy Corporation (AEC) intends to provide a hydrogen fuel system that has mass-deployment economics and provides small-scale, on-demand distributed generation of electricity. Following these product demonstrations with key strategic partners in the first part of 2005, the company plans to then ship initial hydrogen production and electricity generation systems later in 2005.
– AEC Press Release, July 19, 2005 http://www.cleanwatts.com/news/news.asp?id=76
– AEC Press Release, May 17, 2005 http://www.cleanwatts.com/news/news.asp?id=75
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## 1993, Eugene Anderson,Chemical Reactor Block, Metal Alloy, USP 4,324,777 Material and Method to Dissociate Water at Controlled Rates http://www.rexresearch.com/articles/anderson.htm
He tinkers with a foot-long, six-inch wide metal cylinder as the group looks on expectantly. He could be a performer or a preacher, knowing just what strings to pull, priming his audience
The CRB (Chemical Reactor Block), Anderson says, is the product of years of R and D, but more will be needed before they will be able to manufacture and sell it.
He connects one end of a hose to a water faucet, the other end to the hose fitting at the base of the cylinder. It has a hole in its side that allows water to flow through the apparatus. He removes a small wire mesh cage from the top of the cylinder, then holds up a chunk of chalky gray metal. This is the CRB.
He carefully puts the precious substance into the cage. He lowers the cage into the cylinder and turns on the water. As water flows through the fitting, a popping sound is heard.
Casually, Anderson strikes a match and moves it over the mouth of the cylinder. With a whoosh, a flame appears. The beauty of Eugene Anderson’s discovery, the real nut of the magical and mysterious CRB material, is that it can supposedly dissociate the H and O of water without suing outside energy and without being consumed in the process.
Anderson and his uncle [Marion McCoy] saw clearly that the basic problem of the CRB was finding a material that would produce hydrogen without exploding at the same time. Sodium had long been known to liberate hydrogen from water — but the process was also highly combustible.
Patent abstract :
The preferred catalytic alloy comprises (1) platinum present in an amount of from about 0.7 to about 1.1% by weight, (2) lead present in an amount of from about 42.9 to about 71.5% by weight, (3) antimony present in amount of from about 25.5 to about 42.5% by weight, (4) chromium present in an amount of from about 0.7 to about 1.1% by weight, (5) zirconium present in an amount of from about 4.1 to about 6.8% by weight and gold present in an amount of from about 1.1 to about 1.9% by weight.
A specific example of the alloy comprises about 0.9 wt. % platinum, about 57.3 wt. % lead, about 34.0 wt. % antimony, about 0.9 wt. % chromium, about 5.4 wt. % zirconium and about 1.5 wt. % gold.
After blending to provide a uniform mixture the resultant mixture is compressed to form a solid mas by application of pressure of about 40,000 pounds per square inch in a graphite mold conforming to the desired shape of the finished product. The compressed mass is disposed in a crucible conforming to its shape and is Bheated to an elevated temperature of about 10.degree. C. above the melting point of the mass and this temperature is maintained for about 10.+-.1 minutes.
Each reactor block having the extender material identified in Table a is contacted with a fine spray of water at about room temperature in an atmospheric environment. The gaseous effluent from the contact comprising hydrogen and oxygen and burns when subjected to electrical sparking. The volume of gas is dependent upon reactor block surface area and the volume of the water impinging thereon
(to link to the article above use: #EA )
## CHEMALLOY Article & Formula – 06/25/01 http://www.keelynet.com/energy/chem.htm
Chemaloy powderized to about 1,000,000 particles per pound exhibits the same elecritical properties (Fig. 2) as the solid rod. Here it generates slightly more than .5 volt, and in addition decomposes the water, liberating hydrogen
This process is further examined in Fig 3. First fill three graduated cylinders with water, one cold, the second warm, and the third hot. Add equal amounts of Chemaloy to each graduated cylinder. Instantly, the graduated cylinder containing hot water liberates hydrogen (Fig. 3A).
Heat is generated by the reaction so that with the passage of a few minutes (Figs. 3B and C) the three graduated cylinders are equally warm and hydrogen production in all three is the same.
One of the most significant uses of powdered Chemaloy may be the warming and loosening of soils that are too cold or compact for optimum seed generation and plant growth. The warming and areation of soil on a laboratory basis is shown in Fig. 4. A sample of dry soil is placed on top of powdered Chemaloy in a glass case. Note the temperature rise from 94 degrees F. to 126 degrees F. Voltage remains approximately at .6.
Chemaloy Smelting Process, from Patent 2,796,345, 1957
Abstracts : In preparing the alloy of the present invention, the following metals and metal alloys are melted together in a crucible in the following proportions to provide the metallic ingredients:
The chemical ingredients are mixed together thoroughly and the acid added and stirred into the dry ingredients until a thin or watery paste-like mass is produced.
…Meanwhile, the metal ingredients in the crucible have been heated until they reach the temperature of approximately 1450º F…. and a layer of fine grain powdered charcoal of approximately a half-inch thickness is deposited on top of the molten metal to form an insulating blanket.
When this charcoal layer has become red in color, the wet mass of chemical ingredients is deposited entirely over the top of the charcoal blanket in a thick layer. Using a suitable pushing device, such as a metal rod, the chemical mass is forced down through the charcoal blanket into the molten metal mixture, a small area at a time. The charcoal blanket shields the remainder of the mass from explosion or excessive reaction.
(to link to the article above use: #CM )
## 2000, article by Robert Nelson, Water to Gasoline : http://www.rexresearch.com/franch/franch.htm
Wouldn’t it be nice if we could burn water for fuel?
Think of all the money we could save, since water costs only 25 cents a gallon this week!
It’s a wet dream that has been fulfilled several times. The most recent instance occurred in 1996 at the Indian Institute of Technology (ITT), where 30-years old Ramar Pillai demonstrated the conversion of water to a hydrocarbon fuel by mixing it with a secret herbal formula he had discovered. Scientists were understandably amazed by the experiment, which was organized by ITT chemist N. K. Jha. “It is incredible but true”, Jha said.
About two ounces of leaves and bark were boiled in a liter of water, cooled, and a small amount of salt, citric acid, and secret chemicals were added. About a pint of combustible liquid that smells and burns like kerosene was produced within 30 minutes. The National Chemical Laboratory (Pune, India) analyzed the substance and found it to be a pure hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 170° C. The new fuel is more efficient than gasoline, and produces no sulfur exhaust. Researchers at the Indian Institute of Petroleum confirmed the reality of the process.
In 1916, Louis Enricht announced that he had invented “a substitute for gasoline that can be manufactured for a penny a gallon“. As a demonstration, Enricht allowed reporters to inspect the empty gas tank of an automobile. The reporters also tasted the water that Enricht then poured into the tank. He added a green pill, started the car, and gave the reporters a ride around Farmingdale, Long Island. William Haskell, publisher of the Chicago Herald, investigated Enricht’s claims. He wrote:
“I examined the entire engine and tank. I even tasted the water before the mysterious green pill was dropped into the tank. Then I opened the petcock and examined the liquid, which now tasted like biter almonds. I also tasted the liquid at the carburator which was the same. I was amazed when the auto started. We drove it around the city without any trouble”.
In 1917, John Andrews approached the US Navy with his claim that he could convert fresh or salt water into a fuel with the same power as gasoline. The chemical costs were about 2 cents/gallon.
Andrews was allowed to demonstrate his invention at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, where a motor boat was fitted with a dynamometer for the test. Commander Earl P. Jessup, who was Captain of the yard, said:
“We gave Andrews a bucket of water drawn from the Navy Yard [fresh water] hydrant by one of the yard attaches. He got into his car with a gallon can which we inspected and found to be empty and a little satchel he carried with him. In about a minute he handed out the filled can which I personally carried to the open fuel tank. While pouring the liquid into the tank, Andrews held a lighted cigarette close to the liquid, which did not ignite. That showed it was not gaseous or inflammable at that part of the demonstration, which to me was most important. The engine caught just as quickly as it would have done with gasoline, and after a moment’s adjustment of the carburator, it settled down to its work, developing 75% of its rated horsepower, a remarkable showing with any fuel with so slight a readjustment of the carburator”.
In a second test put in an empty room with no possible way to get rid of the bucket of salt water with which he had been supplied, except to empty it into his one-gallon gas can. Commander Jessup said:
“In a minute he emerged with the can filled, and the engine again used it up, no difference being noted between the salt water and fresh. Besides myself, Rear Admiral G.E. Burd, the Industrial Manager of the yard, was present and with the precautions we had taken — our own Navy engine, tank and carburator and our own men supplying the water — there was no possibility of deception.
“From a military viewpoint, it is almost impossible to visualize that such an invention means. It is so important that we have hurried an officer to Washington to make a report to the navy Department. It is obvious that Andrews has discovered a combination of chemicals which breaks down water to a form that is inert until mechanically vaporized by the carburator, when the spark causes it to burn as gasoline burns”.
The next person to demonstrate the conversion of water to fuel was Guido Franch, a former coal miner who tried for nearly 50 years to find financiers for his product. He too used a green powder to turn water into 105-octane fuel. He called it “Mota”, which is atom spelled backwards.
Franch demonstrated Mota hundreds of times, but never produced it commercially. He did, however, sell about 3000% of his rights to interested investors. In 1973, Franch was subpoenaed to appear in Chicago’s Federal Circuit Court “with any records relating to the purchase or the proposed purchase of any fuel, fuel powder, or fuel formula in your possession”. He demonstrated his Mota transmutation in the presence of judges William Bauer and Philip Romiti, who believed what they saw, and Franch was acquitted of charges of fraud.
The fuel is produced with one pound of the reagent in 50 gallons of water. It burns clean and leaves no residue. In one demonstration with a lawnmower, it ran for about 15 minutes on a small amount of Mota-treated water. An equal amount of gasoline lasted only 3 minutes. Mota fuel is very sensitive to sunlight, which will turn it back to water with a white powder residue.
“The granules are dark olive green. As they enter water, they dissolve in a string of green, which begins to spread fiber-like throughout the water. As the water begins to react, there is a swirling effect. Reaction is complete in a few minutes. If the crystals are mixed in 1:1 ratio with water, the resulting fluid is highly explosive and can be detonated by a small shock. But it isn’t shock-sensitive when mixed at a normal ratio of one ounce of powder per half gallon of water. The finished fuel is lighter than water”.
(to link to the article above use: #RN )
For an Up To Date information about the Water Dissociation Technologies, see also : Systems that Produce Hydrogen from Water , http://peswiki.com/index.php/Directory:Hydrogen_from_Water